Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 503–504 | Cite as

Comment on “Targeting AMPK, mTOR and β-Catenin by Combined Metformin and Aspirin Therapy in HCC: An Appraisal in Egyptian HCC Patients”

  • Go J. YoshidaEmail author
Letter to the Editor

Abdelmonsif et al. [1] have recently reported that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tends to exhibit higher levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and β-catenin expression than pre-malignant conditions of cirrhosis. Notably, the combination of metformin and aspirin shows anti-tumor effect in HepG2 cells, with decreased levels of mTOR/AMPK and Wnt/β-catenin signal pathways. Given that metformin has been used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and aspirin is one of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), this research holds much promise in terms of drug repositioning (DR) [1, 2]. Terfenadine, a histamine H1receptor antagonist, has been used for a long period to treat autoimmune disorders such as allergic dermatitis. In a typical DR therapeutic strategy, terfenadine suppresses the invasive and metastatic potentials of malignant melanoma. Mechanistically, terfenadine induces reactive oxygen...


Compliance with Ethical Standards


This letter did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Conflict of interest

GY has no potential conflict of interest relevant to this letter to report.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathological Cell Biology, Medical Research InstituteTokyo Medical and Dental UniversityTokyoJapan

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