Molecular and Immnune Diagnosis: Further Testing for Human Strongyloidiasis
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Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis larvae is particularly challenging because only a small number of larvae are released into the feces, regardless of infection stage.
Our objective was to apply conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to the detection of S. stercoralis DNA in feces samples to evaluate its performance in samples of patients with strongyloidiasis and compare results with those of immunodiagnosis.
Stool, serum, and saliva samples were collected from each individual (n = 48) at the clinic hospital of the State University of Londrina, Brazil, for parasitological, immunological, and molecular tests. Stool samples were processed via parasitological methods. Serum samples were used for immunoglobulin G (IgG) detection and saliva samples for IgA detection by ELISA.
For amplification by conventional PCR, two different primers were used: species specific (101 bp) and genus specific (392 bp). The results showed that 34 (97.1%) of the 35 copro-positive individuals for S. stercoralis were positive for serum IgG and 19 (54.3%) were positive for salivary IgA. Regarding molecular analysis, both primers (species and genus specific) demonstrated positivity in 100% of the samples, which was confirmed by sequencing the positive samples.
Complementary examinations of the parasitological method demonstrated excellent results in the context of the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis, especially in asymptomatic patients with irregular larval release in the feces.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This study was supported by grants from the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES—Grant no. 40002012026M9 [LRB] and Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do estado de São Paulo (FAPESP—Grant no. 2013/03304-0).
Conflict of interest
LRB, PDM, GBdM, MdRFG-P, FMM, WRP, IC-C, JMC-C, FMP and INC have no conflicts of interest.
Ethical Approval and Informed Consent
The study was approved by the ethics committee on human studies at the State University of Londrina (protocol number 1.306.715).
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