Advertisement

Implementing Exercise in Healthcare Settings: The Potential of Implementation Science

  • Louise CzosnekEmail author
  • Nicole Rankin
  • Eva Zopf
  • Justin Richards
  • Simon Rosenbaum
  • Prue Cormie
Leading Article

Abstract

Exercise is an efficacious therapy for many chronic diseases. Integrating efficacious evidence-based interventions (EBIs), such as exercise, into daily healthcare practice is a slow and complex pursuit. Implementation science seeks to understand and address this phenomenon by conducting studies about the methods used to promote the routine uptake of EBIs. The purpose of this article is to explore implementation science and a common conceptual framework in the discipline, the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), as it applies to exercise EBI. We conclude by offering recommendations for future research that leverage implementation science priorities to highlight the potential of this research field for advancing the implementation of exercise EBI.

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding

Simon Rosenbaum is funded by an NHMRC Early Career Fellowship (APP1123336). No other sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this article.

Conflict of interest

Louise Czosnek, Nicole Rankin, Eva Zopf, Justin Richards, Simon Rosenbaum and Prue Cormie declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this article.

References

  1. 1.
    Balas E, Boren S. Managing clinical knowledge for health care improvement. IMIA Yearbook. 2000, pp 65–70.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    McGlynn E, Asch S, Adams J, et al. The quality of health care delivered to adults in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(26):2635–45.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsa022615.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Runciman W, Hunt T, Hannaford N, et al. Caretrack: assessing the appropriateness of health care delivery in Australia. Med J Aust. 2012;197(2):100–5.  https://doi.org/10.5694/mja12.10510.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brownson R, Colditz G, Proctor E. Dissemination and implementation research in health: translating science to practice. 2nd ed. UK: Oxford Univ Press; 2017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Contopoulos-Ioannidis D, Alexiou G, Gouvias T, et al. Life cycle of translational research for medical interventions. Science. 2008;321(5894):1298–9.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1160622.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chalmers I, Glasziou P. Avoidable waste in the production and reporting of research evidence. Lancet. 2009;374(9683):86–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60329-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Green L. Making research relevant: If it is an evidence-based practice, where’s the practice-based evidence? Family Pract. 2008;25(suppl_1):i20–i4,  https://doi.org/10.1093/fampra/cmn055.
  8. 8.
    Mitchell S, Chambers D. Leveraging implementation science to improve cancer care delivery and patient outcomes. J Oncol Pract. 2007;13(8):523–9.  https://doi.org/10.1200/JOP.2017.024729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Joyce C, Schneider M, Stevans JM, et al. Improving physical therapy pain care, quality, and cost through effectiveness-implementation research. Phys Ther. 2018;98(5):447–56.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/pzy031.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Livet M, Haines ST, Curran GM, et al. Implementation science to advance care delivery: a primer for pharmacists and other health professionals. Pharmacotherapy. 2018;38(5):490–502.  https://doi.org/10.1002/phar.2114.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Neta G, Sanchez M, Chambers D, et al. Implementation science in cancer prevention and control: a decade of grant funding by the national cancer institute and future directions. Implement Sci. 2015;10:4.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-014-0200-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Estabrooks PA, Smith-Ray RL, Dzewaltowski DA, et al. Sustainability of evidence-based community-based physical activity programs for older adults: lessons from active for life. Transl Behav Med. 2011;1(2):208–15.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13142-011-0039-x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Harden SM, Johnson SB, Almeida FA, et al. Improving physical activity program adoption using integrated research-practice partnerships: an effectiveness-implementation trial. Transl Behav Med. 2017;7(1):28–38.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13142-015-0380-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eakin EG, Hayes SC, Haas MR, et al. Healthy living after cancer: a dissemination and implementation study evaluating a telephone-delivered healthy lifestyle program for cancer survivors. BMC Cancer. 2015;15(1):992.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-015-2003-5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Matthews L, Kirk A, McCullum M, et al. The feasibility of a physical activity intervention for adults within routine diabetes care: a process evaluation. Pract Diabetes. 2017;34 (1 January/February 2017).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Caspersen CJ, Powell KE, Christenson GM. Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Rep. 1985;100(2):126–31.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sackett DL. Evidence-based medicine. Semin Perinatol. 1997;21(1):3–5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0146-0005(97)80013-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Damschroder L, Aaron D, Keith R, et al. Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science. Implement Sci. 2009;4:50.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-4-50.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Durlak J, DuPre E. Implementation matters: a review of research on the influence of implementation on program outcomes and the factors affecting implementation. Am J Community Psychol. 2008;41(3–4):327–50.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-008-9165-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chaudoir SR, Dugan AG, Barr CHI. Measuring factors affecting implementation of health innovations: a systematic review of structural, organizational, provider, patient, and innovation level measures. Implement Sci. 2013;8:22.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-8-22.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Grol R, Wensing M, Eccles M, et al. Improving patient care: the implementation of change in health care. 2nd ed. UK: Wiley Blackwell; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Beedie C, Mann S, Jimenez A, et al. Death by effectiveness: exercise as medicine caught in the efficacy trap! Br J Sports Med. 2016;50(6):323–4.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2014-094389.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ried-Larsen M, MacDonald CS, Johansen MY, et al. Why prescribe exercise as therapy in type 2 diabetes? We have a pill for that! Diabetes/Metab Res Rev. 2018;34(5):2999.  https://doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.2999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gates AB, Kerry R, Moffatt F, et al. Movement for movement: exercise as everybody’s business? Br J Sports Med. 2017;51(10):767–8.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-096857.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Santa Mina D, Alibhai SMH, Matthew AG, et al. Exercise in clinical cancer care: a call to action and program development description. Curr Oncol. 2012;19(3):9.  https://doi.org/10.3747/co.19.912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Neubeck L, Freedman SB, Clark AM, et al. Participating in cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative data. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2012;19(3):494–503.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1741826711409326.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dennett AM, Peiris CL, Shields N, et al. Exercise therapy in oncology rehabilitation in australia: a mixed-methods study. Asia-Pac J Clin Oncol. 2016;13(5):e515–27.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ajco.12642.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dalzell MA, Smirnow N, Sateren W, et al. Rehabilitation and exercise oncology program: translating research into a model of care. Curr Oncol. 2017;24(3):e191–8.  https://doi.org/10.3747/co.24.3498.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Glasziou P, Straus S, Brownlee S, et al. Evidence for underuse of effective medical services around the world. Lancet. 2017;390(10090):167–77.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30946-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Eccles M, Mittman B. Welcome to implementation science. Implement Sci. 2006;1(1):1.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-1-1.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brown CH, Curran G, Palinkas LA, et al. An overview of research and evaluation designs for dissemination and implementation. Annu Rev Public Health. 2017;38:1–22.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031816-044215.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Curran GM, Bauer M, Mittman B, et al. Effectiveness-implementation hybrid designs: combining elements of clinical effectiveness and implementation research to enhance public health impact. Med Care. 2012;50(3):217–26.  https://doi.org/10.1097/MLR.0b013e3182408812.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sanson-Fisher R, D’Este C, Carey M, et al. Evaluation of systems-oriented public health interventions: alternative research designs. Annu Rev Public Health. 2014;35(1):9–27.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182445.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Palinkas LA, Aarons GA, Horwitz S, et al. Mixed method designs in implementation research. Adm Policy Ment Health. 2011;38(1):44–53.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-010-0314-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Palinkas LA. Qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2014;43(6):851–61.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2014.910791.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nilsen P. Making sense of implementation theories, models and frameworks. Implement Sci. 2015;10(1):53.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-015-0242-0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Powell BJ, Waltz TJ, Chinman MJ, et al. A refined compilation of implementation strategies: results from the expert recommendations for implementing change (ERIC) project. Implement Sci. 2015;10(1):21.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-015-0209-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tabak R, Khoong E, Chambers D, et al. Models in dissemination and implementation research: useful tools in public health services and systems research. Front Public Health Serv Syst Res. 2013;2(1):1.  https://doi.org/10.13023/fphssr.0201.08.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Birken SA, Powell BJ, Shea CM, et al. Criteria for selecting implementation science theories and frameworks: results from an international survey. Implement Sci. 2017;12(1):124.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-017-0656-y.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Estabrooks PA, Brownson RC, Pronk NP. Dissemination and implementation science for public health professionals: an overview and call to action. Prev Chronic Dis. 2018;15:e162.  https://doi.org/10.5888/pcd15.180525.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Michie S, Johnston M, Abraham C, et al. Making psychological theory useful for implementing evidence based practice: a consensus approach. Qual Saf Health Care. 2005;14(1):26–33.  https://doi.org/10.1136/qshc.2004.011155.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Glasgow RE, Vogt TM, Boles SM. Evaluating the public health impact of health promotion interventions: the re-aim framework. Am J Public Health. 1999;89(9):1322–7.  https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.89.9.1322.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kirk MA, Kelley C, Yankey N, et al. A systematic review of the use of the consolidated framework for implementation research. Implement Sci. 2016;11(1):72.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-016-0437-z.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Damschroder LJ, Lowery JC. Evaluation of a large-scale weight management program using the consolidated framework for implementation research (CFIR). Implement Sci. 2013;8(1):51.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-8-51.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Stevenson L, Ball S, Haverhals LM, et al. Evaluation of a national telemedicine initiative in the veterans health administration: factors associated with successful implementation. J Telemed Telecare. 2018;24(3):168–78.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1357633x16677676.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Reardon CM, Robinson CH, Damschroder LJ, et al. Implementation evaluation of the telephone lifestyle coaching (TLC) program: organizational factors associated with successful implementation. Transl Behav Med. 2016;7(2):233–41.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13142-016-0424-6.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Consolidated framework for implementation research. 2018. http://www.cfirguide.org/index.html. Accessed 14 Feb 2018.
  48. 48.
    Matthews A, Jones N, Thomas A, et al. An education programme influencing health professionals to recommend exercise to their type 2 diabetes patients—understanding the processes: a case study from Oxfordshire, UK. BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17(1):130.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-017-2040-7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    McIntosh N, Fix GM, Allsup K, et al. A qualitative study of participation in cardiac rehabilitation programs in an integrated health care system. Mil Med. 2017;182(9–10):e1757–63.  https://doi.org/10.7205/milmed-d-17-00053.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cairney J, McGannon KR, Atkinson M. Exercise is medicine: critical considerations in the qualitative research landscape. Qual Res Sport Exerc Health. 2018;10(4):391–9.  https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2018.1476010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Beidas RS, Paciotti B, Barg F, et al. A hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial of an evidence-based exercise intervention for breast cancer survivors. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2014;2014(50):338–45.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jncimonographs/lgu033.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Chambers DA, Norton WE. The adaptome: advancing the science of intervention adaptation. Am J Prev Med. 2016;51(4 Suppl 2):S124–31.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2016.05.011.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Quiñones MM, Lombard-Newell J, Sharp D, et al. Case study of an adaptation and implementation of a diabetes prevention program for individuals with serious mental illness. Transl Behav Med. 2018;8(2):195–203.  https://doi.org/10.1093/tbm/ibx064.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lederman O, Suetani S, Stanton R, et al. Embedding exercise interventions as routine mental health care: implementation strategies in residential, inpatient and community settings. Australas Psychiatry. 2017;25(5):451–5.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1039856217711054.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Matthews E, Cowman M, Denieffe S. Using experience-based co-design for the development of physical activity provision in rehabilitation and recovery mental health care. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2017;24(7):545–52.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jpm.12401.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Avery L, Charman SJ, Taylor L, et al. Systematic development of a theory-informed multifaceted behavioural intervention to increase physical activity of adults with type 2 diabetes in routine primary care: movement as medicine for type 2 diabetes. Implement Sci. 2016;11(1):99.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-016-0459-6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Granger C, Parry SM, Denehy L, et al. Evidence, education and multi-disciplinary integration are needed to embed exercise into lung cancer clinical care: a qualitative study involving physiotherapists. Physiother Theory Pract. 2018;34(11):852–60.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593985.2018.1425939.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Segar M, Guérin E, Phillips E, et al. From a vital sign to vitality: selling exercise so patients want to buy it. Transl J Am Coll Sports Med. 2016;1(11):97–102.  https://doi.org/10.1249/tjx.0000000000000015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cormie P. Ex-med cancer. 2018. http://www.exmedcancer.org.au/. Accessed 19 Mar 2018.
  60. 60.
    Cormie P. Exmed cancer pd. Melbourne, Australia. 2018. https://exmedcancerpd.learnbook.com.au/ Accessed 30 May 2018.
  61. 61.
    Stoutenberg M, Galaviz KI, Lobelo F, et al. A pragmatic application of the RE-AIM framework for evaluating the implementation of physical activity as a standard of care in health systems. Prev Chronic Dis. 2018;15:e54.  https://doi.org/10.5888/pcd15.170344.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Becker-Haimes EM, Williams NJ, Okamura KH, et al. Interactions between clinician and organizational characteristics to predict cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic therapy use. Adm Policy Ment Health Ment Health Serv Res. 2019.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-019-00959-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Greenhalgh T. How to implement evidence-based healthcare. Hoboken: Wiley; 2017.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Grace SL, Angevaare KL, Reid RD, et al. Effectiveness of inpatient and outpatient strategies in increasing referral and utilization of cardiac rehabilitation: a prospective, multi-site study. Implement Sci. 2012;7(1):120.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-7-120.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Fibbins H, editor. Keeping our staff in mind: Improving cardiometabolic risk and physical fitness of mental health staff through a physical activity intervention. Society of Mental Health Research Conference; 2017; Canberra, Australia.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chor KHB, Wisdom JP, Olin S-CS, et al. Measures for predictors of innovation adoption. Adm Policy Ment Health Ment Health Serv Res. 2015;42(5):545–73,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10488-014-0551-7.
  67. 67.
    Aarons GA, Green AE, Willging CE, et al. Mixed-method study of a conceptual model of evidence-based intervention sustainment across multiple public-sector service settings. Implement Sci. 2014;9(1):183.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-014-0183-z.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Furness T, Hewavasam J, Barnfield J, et al. Adding an accredited exercise physiologist role to a new model of care at a secure extended care mental health service: a qualitative study. J Ment Health. 2018;27(2):120–6.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09638237.2017.1294744.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Miller S, Mandrusiak A, Adsett J. Getting to the heart of the matter: what is the landscape of exercise rehabilitation for people with heart failure in Australia? Heart Lung Circ. 2018;27(11):1350–6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2017.08.016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Young HML, Smith AC, Churchward DR, et al. Implementing a theory-based intradialytic exercise programme in practice: a quality improvement project. Clin Kidney J. 2018;11(6):832–40.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfy050.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Demark-Wahnefried W, Rogers LQ, Alfano CM, et al. Practical clinical interventions for diet, physical activity, and weight control in cancer survivors. Cancer J Clin. 2015;65(3):167–89.  https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Diabetes in adults. Quality standard (QS6) 2019. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/qs6. Accessed 22 Aug 2019.
  73. 73.
    Leach HJ, Danyluk JM, Culos-Reed SN. Design and implementation of a community-based exercise program for breast cancer patients. Curr Oncol. 2014;21(5):267–71.  https://doi.org/10.3747/co.21.2079.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Demark-Wahnefried W, Schmitz KH, Alfano CM, et al. Weight management and physical activity throughout the cancer care continuum. Cancer J Clin. 2018;68(1):64–89.  https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    NSW Government. Physical health care within mental health services. 2017. https://www1.health.nsw.gov.au/pds/ActivePDSDocuments/PD2017_033.pdf. Accessed 11 Dec 2017.
  76. 76.
    Mental Health Commission of NSW. Physical health and mental wellbeing: Evidence guide. 2016. https://nswmentalhealthcommission.com.au/resources/physical-health-and-mental-wellbeing-an-evidence-guide. Accessed 27 Nov 2017.
  77. 77.
    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults: Treatment and management. London, UK: NICE; 2014.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Murgitroyd E, Fraser S, Hebson A, et al. Implementation of a supervised exercise therapy programme. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2019;101(1):7–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hempel S, O’Hanlon C, Lim YW, et al. Spread tools: a systematic review of components, uptake, and effectiveness of quality improvement toolkits. Implement Sci. 2019;14(1):83.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-019-0929-8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Santa Mina D, Petrella A, Currie KL, et al. Enablers and barriers in delivery of a cancer exercise program: the Canadian experience. Curr Oncol. 2015;22(6):374–84.  https://doi.org/10.3747/co.22.2650.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bäck M, Öberg B, Krevers B. Important aspects in relation to patients’ attendance at exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation—facilitators, barriers and physiotherapist’s role: a qualitative study. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2017;17(1):77.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12872-017-0512-7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Shields CA, Fowles JR, Dunbar P, et al. Increasing diabetes educators’ confidence in physical activity and exercise counselling: the effectiveness of the “physical activity and exercise toolkit” training intervention. Can J Diabetes. 2013;37(6):381–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjd.2013.08.265.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Clark RE, McArthur C, Papaioannou A, et al. “I do not have time. Is there a handout I can use?”: Combining physicians’ needs and behavior change theory to put physical activity evidence into practice. Osteoporos Int. 2017;28(6):1953–63,  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-017-3975-6.
  84. 84.
    Bauman AE, Reis RS, Sallis JF, et al. Correlates of physical activity: why are some people physically active and others not? Lancet. 2012;380(9838):258–71.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60735-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Salbach NM, Howe J-A, Baldry D, et al. Considerations for expanding community exercise programs incorporating a healthcare-recreation partnership for people with balance and mobility limitations: a mixed methods evaluation. BMC Res Notes. 2018;11(1):214.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-018-3313-x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Powell BJ, Fernandez ME, Williams NJ, et al. Enhancing the impact of implementation strategies in healthcare: a research agenda. Front Public Health. 2019.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2019.00003.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Johnson P, Raterink G. Implementation of a diabetes clinic-in-a-clinic project in a family practice setting: using the plan, do, study, act model. J Clin Nurs. 2009;18(14):2096–103.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02774.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Finlayson M, Cattaneo D, Cameron M, et al. Applying the re-aim framework to inform the development of a multiple sclerosis falls-prevention intervention. Int J MS Care. 2014;16(4):192–7.  https://doi.org/10.7224/1537-2073.2014-055.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Koorts H, Eakin E, Estabrooks P, et al. Implementation and scale up of population physical activity interventions for clinical and community settings: the PRACTIS guide. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2018;15(1):51.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-018-0678-0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Kimmel GT, Haas BK, Hermanns M. The role of exercise in cancer treatment: bridging the gap. Transl J Am Coll Sports Med. 2016;1(17):152–8.  https://doi.org/10.1249/tjx.0000000000000022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hoekstra F, Alingh RA, van der Schans CP, et al. Design of a process evaluation of the implementation of a physical activity and sports stimulation programme in Dutch rehabilitation setting: respact. Implement Sci. 2014;9(1):127.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-014-0127-7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mewes JC, Steuten LMG, Ijsbrandy C, et al. Value of implementation of strategies to increase the adherence of health professionals and cancer survivors to guideline-based physical exercise. Value Health. 2017;20(10):1336–44.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2017.04.013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gyurcsik NC, Brittain DR. Partial examination of the public health impact of the people with arthritis can exercise (PACE®) program: reach, adoption, and maintenance. Public Health Nurs. 2006;23(6):516–22.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1446.2006.00591.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Proctor E, Luke D, Calhoun A, et al. Sustainability of evidence-based healthcare: research agenda, methodological advances, and infrastructure support. Implement Sci. 2015;10(1):88.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-015-0274-5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Proctor E, Powell B, McMillen J. Implementation strategies: recommendations for specifying and reporting. Implement Sci. 2013;8(1):139.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-8-139.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Moore GF, Audrey S, Barker M, et al. Process evaluation of complex interventions: medical research council guidance. Br Med J. 2015.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h1258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Slade S, Keating J. Exercise prescription: a case for standardised reporting. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46(16):1110–3.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2011-090290.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Slade SC, Cup E, Feehan L, et al. Consensus on exercise reporting template (CERT): modified delphi study. Phys Ther. 2016;96(10):1514–24.  https://doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20150668.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    McCrabb S, Lane C, Hall A, et al. Scaling-up evidence-based obesity interventions: a systematic review assessing intervention adaptations and effectiveness and quantifying the scale-up penalty. Obes Rev. 2019.  https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12845.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Library C. Cochrane effective practice and organisation of care. 2018. https://epoc.cochrane.org/epoc-taxonomy. Accessed 11 Dec 2018.
  101. 101.
    Michie S, Richardson M, Johnston M, et al. The behavior change technique taxonomy (V1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Ann Behav Med. 2013;46(1):81–95.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-013-9486-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Greaves CJ, Sheppard KE, Abraham C, et al. Systematic review of reviews of intervention components associated with increased effectiveness in dietary and physical activity interventions. BMC Public Health. 2011;11(1):119.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-11-119.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Powell BJ, Beidas RS, Lewis CC, et al. Methods to improve the selection and tailoring of implementation strategies. J Behav Health Serv Res. 2017;44(2):177–94.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11414-015-9475-6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Louise Czosnek
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nicole Rankin
    • 2
  • Eva Zopf
    • 1
  • Justin Richards
    • 3
    • 4
  • Simon Rosenbaum
    • 5
    • 6
  • Prue Cormie
    • 1
  1. 1.Mary MacKillop Institute for Health ResearchAustralian Catholic UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Faculty of HealthVictoria University of WellingtonWellingtonNew Zealand
  4. 4.School of Public Health and Charles Perkins CentreUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia
  5. 5.School of PsychiatryUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  6. 6.Black Dog InstituteUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations