Reply to Borszcz & de Lucas: Comment on: “Effects of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse on Cycling Time Trial Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis”

  • Cayque Brietzke
  • Paulo Estevão Franco-Alvarenga
  • Márcio Fagundes Goethel
  • Tony Meireles Santos
  • Flávio Oliveira PiresEmail author
Letter to the Editor

Dear Editor,

We read with interest the letter by Borszcz and de Lucas [ 1] commenting on our recent systematic review and meta-analysis [ 2] and subsequent correspondence [ 3, 4]. While we think some of the points raised by the correspondents may be insightful for readers, we have some concerns about others. We conducted our systematic review and meta-analysis assuming that carryover effects would be negligible in carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse study designs given the nature of treatment and washout usually observed between trials, and that the use of the standardized mean difference (SMD) and standard error (SE) suggested for parallel group designs should be conservative when identifying eventual beneficial CHO effects on performance [ 5]. However, crossover designs have advantages because each participant works as his/her own control so that more power is obtained with the same number of participants when compared to parallel group studies [ 6]. Therefore, we agreed with Borszcz and de...


Compliance with Ethical Standards


No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this letter.

Conflict of Interest

Cayque Brietzke, Paulo Estevão Franco-Alvarenga, Márcio Fagundes Goethel, Tony Meireles Santos and Flávio Oliveira Pires declare that they have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this letter.


  1. 1.
    Borszcz FK, de Lucas RD. Comment on: “Effects of carbohydrate mouth rinse on cycling time trial performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis” and subsequent Li et al. comment/author reply. Sports Med. 2019.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brietzke C, Franco-Alvarenga PE, Coelho-Júnior HJ, Silveira R, Asano RY, Pires FO. Effects of carbohydrate mouth rinse on cycling time trial performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2019;49:57–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Li S, Wu Y, Cao Y. Comment on: “Effects of carbohydrate mouth rinse on cycling time trial performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis”. Sports Med. 2019;49:819–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brietzke C, Franco-Alvarenga PE, Pires FO. Reply to Li et al.: comment on “Effects of carbohydrate mouth rinse on cycling time trial performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis.”. Sports Med. 2019;49:823–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schubert MM, Desbrow B, Sabapathy S, Leveritt M. Acute exercise and hormones related appetite regulation: comparison of meta-analytical methods. Sports Med. 2014;44:1167–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Higgins J, Green S. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions version 5.1.0. The Cochrane collaboration [internet]. 2011. Accessed 5 Sept 2019.
  7. 7.
    Ispoglou T, OʼKelly D, Angelopoulou A, Bargh M, OʼHara JP, Duckworth LC. Mouth rinsing with carbohydrate solutions at the postprandial state fail to improve performance during simulated cycling time trials. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29:2316–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Trommelen J, Beelen M, Mullers M, Gibala MJ, van Loon LJC, Cermak NM. A sucrose mouth rinse does not improve 1-hr cycle time trial performance when performed in the fasted or fed state. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2015;25:576–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beelen M, Berghuis J, Bonaparte B, Ballak SB, Jeukendrup AE, van Loon LJC. Carbohydrate mouth rinsing in the fed state: lack of enhancement of time-trial performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009;19:400–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pires FO, Brietzke C, Pinheiro FA, Veras K, de Mattos ECT, Rodacki ALF, et al. Carbohydrate mouth rinse fails to improve four-kilometer cycling time trial performance. Nutrients. 2018;10:342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ferreira AMJ, Farias-Junior LF, Mota TAA, Elsangedy HM, Marcadenti A, Lemos TMAM, et al. The effect of carbohydrate mouth rinse on performance, biochemical and psychophysiological variables during a cycling time trial: a crossover randomized trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018;15:23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chambers ES, Bridge MW, Jones DA. Carbohydrate sensing in the human mouth: effects on exercise performance and brain activity. J Physiol. 2009;587:1779–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Carter JM, Jeukendrup AE, Jones DA. The effect of carbohydrate mouth rinse on 1-h cycle time trial performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36:2107–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kulaksız TN, Koşar ŞN, Bulut S, Güzel Y, Willems MET, Hazir T, et al. Mouth rinsing with maltodextrin solutions fails to improve time trial endurance cycling performance in recreational athletes. Nutrients. 2016;8:2–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Murray KO, Paris HL, Fly AD, Chapman RF, Mickleborough TD. Carbohydrate mouth rinse improves cycling time-trial performance without altering plasma insulin concentration. J Sports Sci Med. 2018;17:145–52.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lane SC, Bird SR, Burke LM, Hawley JA. Effect of a carbohydrate mouth rinse on simulated cycling time-trial performance commenced in a fed or fasted state. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2013;38:134–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pottier A, Bouckaert J, Gilis W, Roels T, Derave W. Mouth rinse but not ingestion of a carbohydrate solution improves 1-h cycle time trial performance. Scand J Med Sci Sport. 2010;20:105–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    James RM, Ritchie S, Rollo I, James LJ. No dose response effect of carbohydrate mouth rinse on cycling time-trial performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2017;27:25–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Devenney S, Collins K, Shortall M. Effects of various concentrations of carbohydrate mouth rinse on cycling performance in a fed state. Eur J Sport Sci. 2016;16:1073–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Borenstein M, Hedges LV, Higgins JPT, Rothstein HR. Introduction to meta-analysis [internet]. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hopkins WG, Schabort EJ, Hawley JA. Reliability of power in physical performance tests. Sports Med. 2001;31:211–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lima-Silva AE, Bertuzzi RC, Pires FO, Fronchetti L, Gevaerd MS, De-Oliveira FR. A low carbohydrate diet affects autonomic modulation during heavy but not moderate exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;108:1133–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Exercise Psychophysiology Research Group, School of Arts, Sciences and HumanitiesUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Physical Education Program, Research Center for Performance and HealthFederal University of PernambucoRecifeBrazil

Personalised recommendations