Sports Medicine

, Volume 48, Issue 12, pp 2715–2724 | Cite as

Sternal Injuries in Sport: A Review of the Literature

  • Jeffrey AlentEmail author
  • Dusty Marie Narducci
  • Byron Moran
  • Eric Coris
Review Article


Sternal fractures were first described in published literature in the 19th century as a complication of traumatic injury. Though sternal fracture and other sternal injuries have been described in trauma literature, there remains a paucity of literature with regards to sternal injury in sport. Sternal injury may include disruption at the body, manubrium and xiphoid process, or at associated sternoclavicular, manubriosternal, and xiphisternal joints. In the athlete it is imperative to evaluate sternal injury with consideration of potentially devastating cardiothoracic complications. Return-to-play protocols should be individualized, taking into account subjective history, objective physical examination and diagnostics, current clinical guidelines, and individual sport-specific considerations. The literature regarding sternal injury is reviewed, with emphasis on sport-specific pathology, management, and return to play.


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Authors Jeffrey Alent, Dusty Narducci, Byron Moran, and Eric Coris declare that they have no conflict of interest.


No financial support was received for the conduct of this study or preparation of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of South Florida-Morton Plant MeaseTampaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Orthopedics and Sports MedicineUSF Morsani College of MedicineTampaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Family MedicineUSF Morsani College of MedicineTampaUSA
  4. 4.Department of Internal MedicineUSF Morsani College of MedicineTampaUSA

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