Advertisement

Sports Medicine

, Volume 48, Issue 11, pp 2677–2678 | Cite as

Medical Gases as an Emerging Topic in Sports Medicine

  • Sergej M. Ostojic
Letter to the Editor

In 2014, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) included argon and xenon on its annual list of prohibited substances and methods [1]. Two noble gases have been added to Sect. S2.1 of the list, which covers peptide hormones, growth factors, and related substances and mimetics, with argon and xenon listed as hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-activating agents. The ban on two medical gases occurred after allegations that Russians have been using the noble gases for years as performance-enhancing inhalation agents prior to international competitions [2]. This interdict perhaps opens a Pandora’s box of using (and regulating) other medical gases in sport, since several therapeutic gases (besides oxygen) might have performance-enhancing effects, although currently unrecognized by relevant authorities.

Research Snippets on Medical Gases and Exercise Performance

Searching through the PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases (as at 1 April 2018) revealed no studies showing performance-enhancing...

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding

This work was partly supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development (175037); the Provincial Secretariat for Higher Education and Scientific Research (114-451-710); the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, Novi Sad; and the Center for Health, Exercise and Sport Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia.

Conflict of interest

Sergej M. Ostojic has no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this letter.

References

  1. 1.
    WADA. Amended 2014 Prohibited List in force September 1. 2014. Available at: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/media/news/2014-08/amended-2014-prohibited-list-in-force-september-1. Accessed 7 Feb 2018.
  2. 2.
    The Economist. Breathe it in. An obscure gas improves athletes’ performance. 2014. Available at: https://www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21595890-obscure-gas-improves-athletes-performance-breathe-it. Accessed 7 Feb 2018.
  3. 3.
    Hasuda T, Satoh T, Shimouchi A, et al. Improvement in exercise capacity with nitric oxide inhalation in patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension. Circulation. 2000;101:2066–70.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ostojic SM. Molecular hydrogen in sports medicine: new therapeutic perspectives. Int J Sports Med. 2015;36:273–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pecorella SR, Potter JV, Cherry AD, et al. The HO-1/CO system regulates mitochondrial-capillary density relationships in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015;309(8):L857–71.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Laude EA, Duffy NC, Baveystock C, et al. The effect of helium and oxygen on exercise performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized crossover trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;173:865–70.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Di Filippo C, Trotta MC, Maisto R, et al. Daily oxygen/O3 treatment reduces muscular fatigue and improves cardiac performance in rats subjected to prolonged high intensity physical exercise. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2015;2015:190640.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bocci V. Ozone as doping in athletes. In: Bocci V, editor. Oxygen-ozone therapy. New York, NY: Springer; 2002. p. 341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.FSPE Applied Bioenergetics LabUniversity of Novi SadNovi SadSerbia
  2. 2.University of Belgrade School of MedicineBelgradeSerbia

Personalised recommendations