Sports Medicine

, Volume 48, Issue 11, pp 2677–2678 | Cite as

Medical Gases as an Emerging Topic in Sports Medicine

  • Sergej M. OstojicEmail author
Letter to the Editor

In 2014, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) included argon and xenon on its annual list of prohibited substances and methods [1]. Two noble gases have been added to Sect. S2.1 of the list, which covers peptide hormones, growth factors, and related substances and mimetics, with argon and xenon listed as hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-activating agents. The ban on two medical gases occurred after allegations that Russians have been using the noble gases for years as performance-enhancing inhalation agents prior to international competitions [2]. This interdict perhaps opens a Pandora’s box of using (and regulating) other medical gases in sport, since several therapeutic gases (besides oxygen) might have performance-enhancing effects, although currently unrecognized by relevant authorities.

Research Snippets on Medical Gases and Exercise Performance

Searching through the PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases (as at 1 April 2018) revealed no studies showing performance-enhancing...


Compliance with Ethical Standards


This work was partly supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development (175037); the Provincial Secretariat for Higher Education and Scientific Research (114-451-710); the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, Novi Sad; and the Center for Health, Exercise and Sport Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia.

Conflict of interest

Sergej M. Ostojic has no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this letter.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.FSPE Applied Bioenergetics LabUniversity of Novi SadNovi SadSerbia
  2. 2.University of Belgrade School of MedicineBelgradeSerbia

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