Medical Gases as an Emerging Topic in Sports Medicine
In 2014, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) included argon and xenon on its annual list of prohibited substances and methods . Two noble gases have been added to Sect. S2.1 of the list, which covers peptide hormones, growth factors, and related substances and mimetics, with argon and xenon listed as hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-activating agents. The ban on two medical gases occurred after allegations that Russians have been using the noble gases for years as performance-enhancing inhalation agents prior to international competitions . This interdict perhaps opens a Pandora’s box of using (and regulating) other medical gases in sport, since several therapeutic gases (besides oxygen) might have performance-enhancing effects, although currently unrecognized by relevant authorities.
Research Snippets on Medical Gases and Exercise Performance
Searching through the PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases (as at 1 April 2018) revealed no studies showing performance-enhancing...
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This work was partly supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development (175037); the Provincial Secretariat for Higher Education and Scientific Research (114-451-710); the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, Novi Sad; and the Center for Health, Exercise and Sport Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia.
Conflict of interest
Sergej M. Ostojic has no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this letter.
- 1.WADA. Amended 2014 Prohibited List in force September 1. 2014. Available at: https://www.wada-ama.org/en/media/news/2014-08/amended-2014-prohibited-list-in-force-september-1. Accessed 7 Feb 2018.
- 2.The Economist. Breathe it in. An obscure gas improves athletes’ performance. 2014. Available at: https://www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21595890-obscure-gas-improves-athletes-performance-breathe-it. Accessed 7 Feb 2018.