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Sports Medicine

, Volume 49, Issue 2, pp 221–232 | Cite as

Impact of Ad Libitum Versus Programmed Drinking on Endurance Performance: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

  • Eric D. B. GouletEmail author
  • Martin D. Hoffman
Systematic Review

Abstract

Background

Debate continues on how athletes should hydrate during exercise. Several studies have recently been published comparing the effect of ad libitum (ALD) and programmed drinking (PD) on endurance performance (EP).

Objective

This work examined whether one drinking strategy offers an EP advantage over the other.

Design

Systematic review and meta-analysis of crossover controlled trials.

Data Sources

PubMed and SPORTDiscus database searches.

Eligibility Criteria for Selecting Studies

Key criteria were (1) experiments performed under controlled settings; (2) exercise lasting ≥ 1 h; (3) exercise initiated in an euhydrated state; (4) fluid intake during PD > ALD; (5) fluid composition matched for electrolytes; and (6) carbohydrate intake varied by > 25% between conditions when the exercise was 1 h and matched for exercise > 1 h.

Results

Seven publications, producing eight effect estimates, including cycling and running exercises and representing 82 subjects, were included. Mean (± standard deviation) ambient temperature, exercise intensity and duration of the experiments were 28 ± 6 °C, 81 ± 12% of maximal heart rate and 96 ± 25 min, respectively. Mean rate of fluid consumption for the PD and ALD conditions was 1073 ± 247 mL/h and 505 ± 156 mL/h, respectively. Mean change in body mass for the PD and ALD conditions was − 1.0 ± 0.5% and − 2.1 ± 0.7%, respectively. Compared with PD, ALD improved EP by 0.98 ± 0.44% (95% confidence interval 0.11–1.84%). The greater EP conferred by ALD is likely trivial.

Conclusions

Despite ALD being associated with an hourly rate of fluid consumption half as much as PD, and resulting in a dehydration level considered sufficient to impair EP, both strategies were found to similarly impact 1–2 h cycling or running performances conducted at moderate to high intensity and under temperate to warm ambient conditions.

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Funding

No funding was received for the conduct of this work or the preparation of this article.

Conflict of Interest

Eric D. B. Goulet and Martin D. Hoffman declare they have no potential conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this article.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Performance, Hydration and Thermoregulation Laboratory, Faculty of Physical Activity SciencesUniversity of SherbrookeSherbrookeCanada
  2. 2.Research Centre on AgingUniversity of SherbrookeSherbrookeCanada
  3. 3.Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Service, Department of Veterans AffairsNorthern California Health Care SystemSacramentoUSA
  4. 4.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationUniversity of California Davis Medical CenterSacramentoUSA
  5. 5.Ultra Sports Science FoundationEl Dorado HillsUSA

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