, Volume 37, Issue 1, pp 85–92 | Cite as

Health State Utilities for Acute Myeloid Leukaemia: A Time Trade-off Study

  • Namita JoshiEmail author
  • Marja Hensen
  • Sachin Patel
  • Weiwei Xu
  • Kathy Lasch
  • Elly Stolk
Original Research Article



Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is an aggressive haematological cancer associated with significant humanistic impact. The current study assessed how the general public in the United Kingdom (UK) values AML health states.


The composite time trade-off (cTTO) methodology was employed to elicit health state utilities in AML. Pertinent AML literature related to symptom and quality-of-life impact including physical, functional and emotional well-being, as well as the safety profile of AML treatments, were taken into consideration for drafting health state descriptions. Ten health states included in the study were newly diagnosed AML, induction, consolidation, maintenance, long-term follow-up, relapsed/refractory, stem-cell transplant (SCT) procedure, SCT recovery, SCT long-term follow-up with complications and SCT long-term follow-up without complications. The descriptions were validated by haematologists and nurse specialists for clinical accuracy and completeness. A total of 210 individuals from the general UK population participated in the cTTO interviews. Descriptive statistics were computed for health state utility values.


The mean age of the participants was 44.0 years (standard deviation [SD] 14.9, range 18–81) and comprised 129 (61.4%) female participants. The utility values ranged from 0.94 (SD 0.13) for SCT long-term follow-up without complications to − 0.21 (SD 0.62) for the SCT procedure.


The study provides health utilities for a range of AML health states, with the SCT procedure health state being valued worse than death. The utilities obtained in this study can be employed as inputs in cost-effectiveness analyses of AML therapies.



We thank Krystallia Pantiri, Lisette Nientker, and Nick Durno for conducting the interviews. We also thank Amrita Ostawal and Jarjieh Fang for reviewing the manuscript, and Jarjieh Fang for providing editorial support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards


Namita Joshi, Marja Hensen and Kathy Lasch are employees of Pharmerit International, which received funding by Novartis Global to conduct the study. Weiwei Xu was an employee of Pharmerit International at the time of the study, which received funding by Novartis Global to conduct the study. Sachin Patel is employed by Novartis UK. Elly Stolk is employed by The EuroQol Research Foundation and served as the methodology advisor on this study.

Conflict of interest

Namita Joshi, Marja Hensen, Weiwei Xu and Kathy Lasch are employees of Pharmerit International, a consultancy which received funding from Novartis Global to conduct the study. Sachin Patel is an employee of Novartis UK. Elly Stolk received a consulting fee from Pharmerit International for serving as a methodology advisor on this study.

Supplementary material

40273_2018_704_MOESM1_ESM.docx (29 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 28 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Namita Joshi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marja Hensen
    • 2
  • Sachin Patel
    • 3
  • Weiwei Xu
    • 2
  • Kathy Lasch
    • 4
  • Elly Stolk
    • 5
  1. 1.Pharmerit InternationalBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Pharmerit InternationalRotterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Oncology (Haematology, Cell, and Gene)Novartis UKCamberleyUK
  4. 4.Pharmerit InternationalBostonUSA
  5. 5.The EuroQol Research FoundationRotterdamThe Netherlands

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