Adverse drug reactions to antiretroviral drugs and impact on treatment adherence among HIV patients in northwestern Nigeria
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) related to antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been a healthcare concern in the management of HIV. Information relating to ADR prevalence and its contribution to medication adherence is still limited in the northwestern part of Nigeria.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ADRs related to ART use, and its association with non-adherence to treatment.
A prospective observational study was conducted among HIV patients receiving ART at the ART unit of a specialist hospital in Jigawa State, the Northwestern region of Nigeria. Data were collected using patient interview and medical case folders. Patients were followed for 6 months for ADR monitoring. ADR causality was assessed using the WHO causality assessment.
Of the 167 patients in the study, 98 (58.7%) reported experiencing ADRs from ART use. Thirty-nine (44.8%) of the ADRs were possible, 16 (18.4%) were probable, 23 (26.4%) were unlikely, and 9 (10.3%) were conditional. Forty-one (47.1%) of the ADRs were mild, 45 (51.7%) were moderate, and 1 (1.2%) was severe. The most commonly reported ADRs were related to the CNS (163, 52%). ADRs led to non-adherence in 16 patients (16.3%) in the study (Chi-square = 12.1; p < 0.001).
The occurrence of ADRs associated with the use of ART is common and leads to non-adherence to ART among HIV patients. Adequate patient adherence counselling is therefore needed to improve adherence to ART, in addition to patient education and clinical interventions to manage ADRs.
The authors register their appreciation to all patients who participated in this study. The efforts of all staff of the ART clinic and Medical Records Department of the RSSH are also appreciated.
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was approved by the Ethical Committee of the RSSH.
Written informed consent was sought from all included patients prior to the commencement of the study. All data collection forms were de-identified to ensure confidentiality of the patient information.
No financial support was received for the conduct of this study.
Conflict of interest
Abubakar Musa Isa, Ibrahim Jatau Abubakar, and Basheer A. Z. Chedi have declared no conflicts of interest.
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