Drugs & Aging

, Volume 36, Issue 3, pp 235–245 | Cite as

Pigmentation Disorders in the Elderly

  • Andrew M. Armenta
  • Emily D. Henkel
  • Ammar M. AhmedEmail author
Review Article


Aging skin is subject to morphological change due to both intrinsic (skin tone, genetics, endogenous hormones) and extrinsic (chronic sun exposure, medications, exogenous pigments) factors. The broad spectrum of transformation includes both hypo- and hyperpigmentation. Although cutaneous pigmentary disorders are common in younger individuals, certain disorders are more prevalent in the geriatric population. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical appearance, treatment, and prognosis of pigmentary lesions that are predominant in the elderly.


Author Contributions

Drafting and editing of manuscript: AMA, EDH, AMA. Concept, guidance and review of manuscript: AMA.

Compliance with Ethical Standards


No sources of funding were used to conduct this study or prepare this manuscript.

Conflict of interest

A. M. Armenta, E. D. Henkel, and A. M. Ahmed have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew M. Armenta
    • 1
  • Emily D. Henkel
    • 2
  • Ammar M. Ahmed
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.University of Texas Medical Branch, School of MedicineGalvestonUSA
  2. 2.University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Long School of MedicineSan AntonioUSA
  3. 3.Division of Dermatology, Dell Medical SchoolUniversity of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

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