Gilteritinib (Xospata®) is an orally available small molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor developed by Astellas Pharma in collaboration with Kotobuki Pharmaceutical for the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) harbouring FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) mutations. Gilteritinib inhibits FLT3 (STK1 or FLK2), AXL (UFO or JTK11) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK or CD246). Gilteritinib inhibits FLT3 signalling in cells expressing FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD), tyrosine kinase domain mutation FLT3-D835Y and the double mutant FLT3-ITD-D835Y, thereby inducing apoptosis. Gilteritinib also binds to and inhibits the wild-type and mutated forms of ALK, resulting in reduced tumour cell proliferation in cancer cell types that overexpress the mutation. Gilteritinib is approved in Japan for the treatment of relapsed or refractory AML with FLT3 mutation. Recently, it was also approved in the USA for the treatment of adult patients who have relapsed or refractory AML with a FLT3 mutation, as detected by an FDA-approved test. Clinical development of gilteritinib is underway in several countries worldwide. Development for non-small cell lung cancer and solid tumours has been discontinued.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The preparation of this review was not supported by any external funding.
Conflict of interest
During the peer review process the manufacturer of the agent under review was offered an opportunity to comment on the article. Changes resulting from any comments received were made by the authors on the basis of scientific completeness and accuracy. Sohita Dhillon is a salaried employee of Adis/Springer, is responsible for the article content and declares no relevant conflicts of interest.
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