Sodium Zirconium Cyclosilicate: A Review in Hyperkalaemia
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Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (Lokelma™) [hereafter referred to as SZC] is a non-absorbed, non-polymer zirconium silicate compound that preferentially exchanges hydrogen and sodium for potassium and ammonium ions in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), thereby increasing faecal potassium excretion and lowering serum potassium levels. It is available as a powder for oral suspension (in water) and is approved in the EU and the USA for the treatment of hyperkalaemia in adults. In two multinational, phase III studies in adults with hyperkalaemia, SZC 10 g three times daily lowered serum potassium levels to within the normal range (3.5–5.0 mmol/L) during the first 48 h of treatment, and SZC 5 and 10 g once daily maintained normokalaemia over ≤ 28 days’ therapy. These beneficial effects were consistent across all patient subgroups (e.g. chronic kidney disease, diabetes, heart failure, concomitant use of RAAS inhibitor therapy), and appeared to be maintained over the longer term (≤ 12 months). SZC was generally well tolerated in adults with hyperkalaemia. Its tolerability profile was generally similar to that seen with placebo over ≤ 28 day, and its safety profile appeared to remain consistent over the longer term (≤ 12 months). Moreover, the incidence of hypokalemia was low. Current evidence indicates that SZC is a promising therapy for the management of hyperkalaemia in adults.
During the peer review process, the manufacturer of sodium zirconium cyclosilicate was also offered an opportunity to review this article. Changes resulting from comments received were made on the basis of scientific and editorial merit.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The preparation of this review was not supported by any external funding.
Conflict of interest
Sheridan Hoy is a salaried employee of Adis/Springer, is responsible for the article content and declares no relevant conflicts of interest.
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