Disease-Modifying Therapies for Relapsing–Remitting and Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Cost-Utility Analysis
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Several disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) treat relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). Few comprehensive cost-effectiveness analyses exist in this area, particularly from a payer perspective, despite rapidly increasing prices of DMTs.
We aimed to systematically compare cost effectiveness of all relevant DMTs for first-line treatment of RRMS, second-line treatment of RRMS, and first-line treatment of PPMS.
We used a Markov model with health states based on Expanded Disability Status Score categories. Upon discontinuing first-line treatment, RRMS patients continued to second-line therapy then to supportive care, and PPMS patients moved directly to supportive care. Data was sourced from clinical trials and commercially and publicly available sources. The target population was treatment-naïve adults with RRMS or PPMS. We used a lifetime horizon from a US payer perspective, and compared DMTs for RRMS (first-line: dimethyl fumarate, glatiramer acetate, interferon β-1a, interferon β-1b, peginterferon β-1a, teriflunomide, natalizumab, fingolimod, and ocrelizumab; second-line: alemtuzumab, natalizumab, fingolimod, and ocrelizumab), ocrelizumab for PPMS, and supportive care. Outcome measures included total costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs).
For RRMS first-line therapy, ocrelizumab dominated the other DMTs with an ICER of US$166,338/QALY compared with supportive care. For RRMS second-line therapy, alemtuzumab dominated the other three DMTs, providing more QALYs for lower costs. For PPMS, ocrelizumab had an ICER of US$648,799/QALY compared with supportive care. Wide variability in results was observed in the probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Results were sensitive to the relative risk of progression and cost of DMTs.
Ocrelizumab would likely be cost effective as a first-line treatment for RRMS with a discounted price but was not cost effective for PPMS. Alemtuzumab dominated other options for second-line treatment of RRMS. Other DMTs were generally similar in terms of costs and health outcomes, providing health benefits compared to supportive care but with significant added costs. If drug prices were lowered, more DMTs could be cost effective.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Funding for this study was provided by the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, Boston, MA, USA.
Conflicts of interest
Marita Zimmermann served as a consultant to Genentech, and Josh Carlson has been a consultant for Genentech, Bayer, Pfizer, and Sandoz Inc., all of whom manufacture products included in this manuscript. These consultancies were on products unrelated to multiple sclerosis or any of the topics covered in this study. All methods, results, and opinions expressed in this manuscript were not influenced by these consultancies. Elizabeth Brouwer, Jeffrey A. Tice, Matt Seidner, Anne M. Loos, Shanshan Liu, Richard H. Chapman, and Varun Kumar have no conflicts of interest.
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