Effects of Cilostazol-Based Triple Antiplatelet Therapy Versus Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Coronary Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation: An Updated Meta-Analysis of the Randomized Controlled Trials
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Background and Objective
The results of studies on cilostazol-based triple antiplatelet therapy (TAT) after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation were inconsistent. To assess the effects of TAT compared with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT) after DES/second-generation DES implantation, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).
All relevant studies evaluated were identified by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and ISI Web of Science databases without time and language limitation. Subgroup analyses were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TAT after second-generation DES implantation.
Eleven RCTs involving a total of 4684 patients were included. The meta-analysis showed TAT was associated with significant beneficial effects on angiographic findings of in-stent restenosis [risk ratio (RR) 0.645, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.470–0.885; P = 0.007], in-segment restenosis (RR 0.606, 95% CI 0.450–0.817; P = 0.001), in-stent late loss (RR – 0.095, 95% CI − 0.136 to − 0.054; P < 0.0001), in-segment late loss (RR − 0.100, 95% CI − 0.139 to − 0.061; P < 0.0001), target lesion revascularization (TLR) (RR 0.570, 95% CI 0.430–0.755; P < 0.0001), and target vessel revascularization (TVR) (RR 0.523, 95% CI 0.380–0.719; P < 0.0001). No significant difference was found in outcomes of all-cause death, cardiac death, definite/probable stent thrombosis (ST), non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), overall bleeding, and major bleeding between the two groups, as well as some minor adverse effects including palpitations, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and hepatic dysfunction. However, the incidence rate of rash, gastrointestinal disorders, and headache was significantly higher in TAT. The second-generation DES subgroup showed similar results, except for the indicators of all-cause death (RR 2.161, 95% CI 1.007–4.635; P = 0.048) and hepatic dysfunction (RR 0.176, 95% CI 0.031–0.995; P = 0.049).
Compared with DAT, cilostazol-based TAT can significantly improve the angiographic findings of in-stent and in-segment late loss, in-stent and in-segment restenosis, TLR, and TVR after DES/second-generation DES implantation. However, no benefits were observed in outcomes of all-cause death, cardiac death, ST, and MI.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Shijie Zhao, Zhaoshuang Zhong, Guoxian Qi, Liye Shi and Wen Tian, declare that there is no conflict of interest.
This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
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