American Journal of Clinical Dermatology

, Volume 20, Issue 6, pp 807–815 | Cite as

Ocular Co-Morbidities of Atopic Dermatitis. Part II: Ocular Disease Secondary to Treatments

  • Kristen M. BeckEmail author
  • Gerami D. Seitzman
  • Eric J. Yang
  • Isabelle M. Sanchez
  • Wilson Liao
Review Article


Treatments used for managing atopic dermatitis (AD) may have adverse ocular effects that permanently affect vision. The objective of this review is to raise awareness among dermatologists regarding the potential ocular adverse effects of various AD therapies, including corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, an interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) antagonist, and phototherapy. Pertinent potential short- and long-term risks of these therapies include elevations in intraocular pressure from use of topical corticosteroids and conjunctivitis from use of dupilumab. Since some of these adverse effects may not exhibit symptomatology until permanent vision impairment occurs, it is important for dermatologists to understand these risks and proactively ensure their patients are receiving appropriate measures to prevent them.


Compliance with Ethical Standards


This article has no funding source.

Conflict of interest

Kristen M. Beck, Gerami D. Seitzman, Eric J. Yang, and Isabelle M. Sanchez have no conflicts of interest to declare. Wilson Liao has received a research grant from Sanofi/Regeneron, which manufactures dupilumab. Sanofi/Regeneron was not involved in the content, writing, or review of this manuscript.

Prior presentation

This work has not been previously presented.


  1. 1.
    Beck KM, Seitzman G, Yang EJ, Sanchez IM, Liao W. Ocular comorbidities of atopic dermatitis. Part I: associated ocular diseases. Am J Clin Dermatol. In Press.
  2. 2.
    Hoare C, Po LWA, Williams H. Systematic review of treatments for atopic eczema. Health Technol Assess. 2000;4(37):1–191.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schneider L, Tilles S, Lio P, Boguniewicz M, Beck L, LeBovidge J, et al. Atopic dermatitis: a practice parameter update 2012. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;131(2):295–9.e27.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Turno-Kręcicka A, Grzybowski A, Misiuk-Hojło M, Patryn E, Czajor K, Nita M. Ocular changes induced by drugs commonly used in dermatology. Clin Dermatol. 2016;34(2):129–37.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Daniel BS, Orchard D. Ocular side-effects of topical corticosteroids: what a dermatologist needs to know. Australas J Dermatol. 2015;56(3):164–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aggarwal RK, Potamitis T, Chong NH, Guarro M, Shah P, Kheterpal S. Extensive visual loss with topical facial steroids. Eye (Lond). 1993;7(Pt 5):664–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Garrott HM, Walland MJ. Glaucoma from topical corticosteroids to the eyelids. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2004;32(2):224–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Thoe Schwartzenberg GW, Buys YM. Glaucoma secondary to topical use of steroid cream. Can J Ophthalmol. 1999;34(4):222–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Michaeli-Cohen A, Neudorfer M, Loewenstein A, Lazar M, Geyer O. Case report: visual loss caused by facial steroids. Can Fam Physician. 1998;44:2462–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sahni D, Darley CR, Hawk JL. Glaucoma induced by periorbital topical steroid use—a rare complication. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2004;29(6):617–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ross JJ, Jacob A, Batterbury M. Facial eczema and sight-threatening glaucoma. J R Soc Med. 2004;97(10):485–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cubey RB. Glaucoma following the application of corticosteroid to the skin of the eyelids. Br J Dermatol. 1976;95(2):207–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zugerman C, Saunders D, Levit F. Glaucoma from topically applied steroids. Arch Dermatol. 1976;112(9):1326.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tripathi RC, Parapuram SK, Tripathi BJ, Zhong Y, Chalam KV. Corticosteroids and glaucoma risk. Drugs Aging. 1999;15(6):439–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jones R 3rd, Rhee DJ. Corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension and glaucoma: a brief review and update of the literature. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2006;17(2):163–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Haeck IM, Rouwen TJ, Timmer-de Mik L, de Bruin-Weller MS, Bruijnzeel-Koomen CA. Topical corticosteroids in atopic dermatitis and the risk of glaucoma and cataracts. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;64(2):275–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tamagawa-Mineoka R, Yasuoka N, Ueta M, Katoh N. Influence of topical steroids on intraocular pressure in patients with atopic dermatitis. Allergol Int. 2018;67(3):388–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Haeck IM, Rouwen TJ, Timmer-de Mik L, de Bruin-Weller MS, Bruijnzeel-Koomen CA. Topical corticosteroids in atopic dermatitis and the risk of glaucoma and cataracts. J t Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;64(2):275–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Maeng MM, De Moraes CG, Winn BJ, Dagi LRG. Effect of topical periocular steroid use on intraocular pressure: a retrospective analysis. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2019. (Epub 2019 Feb 4).CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Takakuwa K, Hamanaka T, Mori K, Chin S, Shinmei Y, Funaki T, et al. Atopic glaucoma: clinical and pathophysiological analysis. J Glaucoma. 2015;24(9):662–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Phulke S, Kaushik S, Kaur S, Pandav S. Steroid-induced glaucoma: an avoidable irreversible blindness. J Curr Glaucoma Pract. 2017;11(2):67–72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Armaly MF. Effect of corticosteroids on intraocular pressure and fluid dynamics: I. The effect of dexamethasone in the normal eye. Arch Ophthalmol. 1963;70(4):482–91.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Weinreb RN, Aung T, Medeiros FA. The pathophysiology and treatment of glaucoma: a review. JAMA. 2014;311(18):1901–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Eichenfield LF, Tom WL, Berger TG, Krol A, Paller AS, Schwarzenberger K, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of atopic dermatitis: section 2. Management and treatment of atopic dermatitis with topical therapies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;71(1):116–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Renfro L, Snow JS. Ocular effects of topical and systemic steroids. Dermatol Clin. 1992;10(3):505–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    James ER. The etiology of steroid cataract. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2007;23(5):403–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Taniguchi H, Ohki O, Yokozeki H, Katayama I, Tanaka A, Kiyosawa M, et al. Cataract and retinal detachment in patients with severe atopic dermatitis who were withdrawn from the use of topical corticosteroid. J Dermatol. 1999;26(10):658–65.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Katsushima H. Corticosteroid-induced glaucoma following treatment of the periorbital region [in Japanese]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 1995;99(2):238–43.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Thorne JE, Woreta FA, Dunn JP, Jabs DA. Risk of cataract development among children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis-related uveitis treated with topical corticosteroids. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(7):1436–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nagaki Y, Hayasaka S, Kadoi C. Cataract progression in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Cataract Refract Surg. 1999;25(1):96–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jeon HS, Choi M, Byun SJ, Hyon JY, Park KH, Park SJ. Association of pediatric atopic dermatitis and cataract development and surgery. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2018;136(8):912–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Oglesby RB, Black RL, Von Sallmann L, Bunim JJ. Cataracts in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with corticosteroids. Description and differential diagnosis. Arch Ophthalmol. 1961;66:519–23.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Oka C, Ideta H, Nagasaki H, Watanabe K, Shinagawa K. Retinal detachment with atopic dermatitis similar to traumatic retinal detachment. Ophthalmology. 1994;101(6):1050–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ricketti PA, Unkle DW, Cleri DJ, Prenner JL, Coluccielo M, Ricketti AJ. Central serous chorioretinopathy secondary to corticosteroids in patients with atopic disease. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2015;36(2):123–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Thyssen J, de Bruin-Weller M, Paller A, Leshem Y, Vestergaard C, Deleuran M, et al. Conjunctivitis in atopic dermatitis patients with and without dupilumab therapy–International Eczema Council survey and opinion. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2019;33(7):1224–31.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Simpson EL, Bieber T, Guttman-Yassky E, Beck LA, Blauvelt A, Cork MJ, et al. Two phase 3 trials of dupilumab versus placebo in atopic dermatitis. N Engl J Med. 2016;375(24):2335–48.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Treister AD, Kraff-Cooper C, Lio PA. Risk factors for dupilumab-associated conjunctivitis in patients with atopic dermatitis. JAMA Dermatol. 2018;154(10):1208–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Akinlade B, Guttman-Yassky E, de Bruin-Weller M, Simpson E, Blauvelt A, Cork M, et al. Conjunctivitis in dupilumab clinical trials. Br J Dermatol. 2019. (Epub 2019 Mar 9).CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wollenberg A, Ariens L, Thurau S, van Luijk C, Seegraber M, de Bruin-Weller M. Conjunctivitis occurring in atopic dermatitis patients treated with dupilumab—clinical characteristics and treatment. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018;6(5):1778–1780.e1.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Barnes AC, Blandford AD, Perry JD. Cicatricial ectropion in a patient treated with dupilumab. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep. 2017;7:120–2.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yamane MLM, Belsito DV, Glass LRD. Two differing presentations of periocular dermatitis as a side effect of dupilumab for atopic dermatitis. Orbit. 2019;10:1–5.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Levine RM, Tattersall IW, Gaudio PA, King BA. Cicatrizing blepharoconjunctivitis occurring during dupilumab treatment and a proposed algorithm for its management. JAMA Dermatol. 2018;154(12):1485–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wenzel S, Castro M, Corren J, Maspero J, Wang L, Zhang B, et al. Dupilumab efficacy and safety in adults with uncontrolled persistent asthma despite use of medium-to-high-dose inhaled corticosteroids plus a long-acting β2 agonist: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled pivotal phase 2b dose-ranging trial. Lancet. 2016;388(10039):31–44.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bachert C, Mannent L, Naclerio RM, Mullol J, Ferguson BJ, Gevaert P, et al. Effect of subcutaneous dupilumab on nasal polyp burden in patients with chronic sinusitis and nasal polyposis: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016;315(5):469–79.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ou Z, Chen C, Chen A, Yang Y, Zhou W. Adverse events of Dupilumab in adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis: a meta-analysis. Int Immunopharmacol. 2018;54:303–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Thyssen JP, Toft PB, Halling-Overgaard AS, Gislason GH, Skov L, Egeberg A. Incidence, prevalence, and risk of selected ocular disease in adults with atopic dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017;77(2):280–86.e1.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mennini M, Dahdah L, Fiocchi A. Two phase 3 trials of dupilumab versus placebo in atopic dermatitis [letter]. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(11):1090.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Shen E, Xie K, Jwo K, Smith J, Mosaed S. Dupilumab-induced follicular conjunctivitis. Ocular Immunol Inflammn. 2018. (Epub 2018 Oct 18).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bakker D, Ariens L, van Luijk C, van der Schaft J, Thijs J, Schuttelaar M, et al. Goblet cell scarcity and conjunctival inflammation during treatment with dupilumab in patients with atopic dermatitis [letter]. Br J Dermatol. 2019;180(5):1248.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    de Bruin-Weller M, Graham NMH, Pirozzi G, Shumel B. Could conjunctivitis in patients with atopic dermatitis treated with dupilumab be caused by colonization with Demodex and increased interleukin-17 levels? Reply from the authors [letter]. Br J Dermatol. 2018;178(5):1220–1.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gooderham M, McDonald J, Papp K. Diagnosis and management of conjunctivitis for the dermatologist. J Cutan Med Surg. 2018;22(2):200–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Razeghinejad MR, Katz LJ. Steroid-induced iatrogenic glaucoma. Ophthalmic Res. 2012;47(2):66–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rikkers SM, Holland GN, Drayton GE, Michel FK, Torres MF, Takahashi S. Topical tacrolimus treatment of atopic eyelid disease. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;135(3):297–302.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Murrell DF, Calvieri S, Ortonne JP, Ho VC, Weise-Riccardi S, Barbier N, et al. A randomized controlled trial of pimecrolimus cream 1% in adolescents and adults with head and neck atopic dermatitis and intolerant of, or dependent on, topical corticosteroids. Br J Dermatol. 2007;157(5):954–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Zschocke I, Mrowietz U, Karakasili E, Reich K. Non-adherence and measures to improve adherence in the topical treatment of psoriasis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2014;28(s2):4–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Barot RK, Shitole SC, Bhagat N, Patil D, Sawant P, Patil K. Therapeutic effect of 0.1% tacrolimus eye ointment in allergic ocular diseases. J Clin Diagn Res. 2016;10(6):Nc05–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Al-Amri AM. Long-term follow-up of tacrolimus ointment for treatment of atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014;157(2):280–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Freeman AK, Serle J, VanVeldhuisen P, Lind L, Clarke J, Singer G, et al. Tacrolimus ointment in the treatment of eyelid dermatitis. Cutis. 2004;73(4):267–71.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Feldman SR. Disease burden and treatment adherence in psoriasis patients. Cutis. 2013;92(5):258–63.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Nivenius E, van der Ploeg I, Jung K, Chryssanthou E, van Hage M, Montan PG. Tacrolimus ointment vs steroid ointment for eyelid dermatitis in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Eye (Lond). 2007;21(7):968–75.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sakarya Y, Sakarya R. Treatment of refractory atopic blepharoconjunctivitis with topical tacrolimus 0.03% dermatologic ointment. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2012;28(1):94–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Boguniewicz M, Nicol N, Kelsay K, Leung DY. A multidisciplinary approach to evaluation and treatment of atopic dermatitis. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2008;27(2):115–27.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lübbe J, Pournaras CC, Saurat JH. Eczema herpeticum during treatment of atopic dermatitis with 0.1% tacrolimus ointment. Dermatology. 2000;201(3):249–51.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kiiski V, Remitz A, Reitamo S, Mandelin J, Kari O. Long-term safety of topical pimecrolimus and topical tacrolimus in atopic blepharoconjunctivitis. JAMA Dermatol. 2014;150(5):571–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Shoughy SS. Topical tacrolimus in anterior segment inflammatory disorders. Eye Vis (Lond). 2017;9(4):7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Small DS, Acheampong A, Reis B, Stern K, Stewart W, Berdy G, et al. Blood concentrations of cyclosporin a during long-term treatment with cyclosporin a ophthalmic emulsions in patients with moderate to severe dry eye disease. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2002;18(5):411–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gonzalez-Lopez JJ, Lopez-Alcalde J, Morcillo Laiz R, Fernandez Buenaga R, Rebolleda Fernandez G. Topical cyclosporine for atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;9:CD009078.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Fukushima A, Ohashi Y, Ebihara N, Uchio E, Okamoto S, Kumagai N, et al. Therapeutic effects of 0.1% tacrolimus eye drops for refractory allergic ocular diseases with proliferative lesion or corneal involvement. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014;98(8):1023–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Erdinest N, Solomon A. Topical immunomodulators in the management of allergic eye diseases. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;14(5):457–63.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wan KH, Chen LJ, Rong SS, Pang CP, Young AL. Topical cyclosporine in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis: a meta-analysis. Ophthalmology. 2013;120(11):2197–203.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    NEORAL (cyclosporine) [package insert]. East Hanover: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation. 2015.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    SANDIMMUNE (cyclosporine) [package insert]. East Hanover: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation. 2015.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    RESTASIS (cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion) [package insert]. 0.05%. Irvine: Allergan. 2017.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Rouimi F, Bouillot A, Baudouin C, Labbe A. Topical cyclosporine A and risk of ocular surface neoplasia [in French]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2018;41(2):122–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Brenner W, Grabner G. 3H-thymidine autoradiography of guinea pig cornea and skin after exposure to solar simulating radiation. Albrecht Von Graefes Arch Klin Exp Ophthalmol. 1981;216(4):319–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    De Pry J, Brescoll J, Szczotka-Flynn L, Rambhatla P, Lim HW, Cooper K. Phototherapy-related ophthalmologic disorders. Clin Dermatol. 2015;33(2):247–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Archier E, Devaux S, Castela E, Gallini A, Aubin F, Le Maitre M, et al. Carcinogenic risks of psoralen UV-A therapy and narrowband UV-B therapy in chronic plaque psoriasis: a systematic literature review. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2012;26(Suppl 3):22–31.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sidbury R, Davis DM, Cohen DE, Cordoro KM, Berger TG, Bergman JN, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of atopic dermatitis: section 3. Management and treatment with phototherapy and systemic agents. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;71(2):327–49.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Calzavara-Pinton PG, Carlino A, Manfredi E, Semeraro F, Zane C, De Panfilis G. Ocular side effects of PUVA-treated patients refusing eye sun protection. Acta Derm Venereol Suppl (Stockh). 1994;186:164–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Abdullah AN, Keczkes K. Cutaneous and ocular side-effects of PUVA photochemotherapy—a 10-year follow-up study. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1989;14(6):421–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Glew WB, Nigra TP. Psoralens and ocular effects in humans. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1984;66:235–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Richer SP, Yonatan E, Harper CK, McNelis M, Rudy DR, Perdue A. A clinical review of non-age-related cataracts. Optometry. 2001;72(12):767–78.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bair B, Dodd J, Heidelberg K, Krach K. Cataracts in atopic dermatitis: a case presentation and review of the literature. Arch Dermatol. 2011;147(5):585–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Malanos D, Stern RS. Psoralen plus ultraviolet A does not increase the risk of cataracts: a 25-year prospective study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;57(2):231–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Stern RS, Parrish JA, Fitzpatrick TB. Ocular findings in patients treated with PUVA. J Invest Dermatol. 1985;85(3):269–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Stern RS. Ocular lens findings in patients treated with PUVA. Photochemotherapy follow-up-study. J Invest Dermatol. 1994;103(4):534–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Maitray A, Rishi P. Methoxsalen-induced macular toxicity. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2017;65(11):1243–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Soker S, Nergiz Y, Cakmak S, Bahceci S, Aytekin S. The demonstration of changes in bulbar conjunctiva surface epithelium in the psoriatic patients treated with PUVA. Ann Ophthalmol (Skokie). 2008;40(2):94–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Stern RS, Nichols KT, Väkevä LH. Malignant melanoma in patients treated for psoriasis with methoxsalen (psoralen) and ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA). N Engl J Med. 1997;336(15):1041–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Haciyakupoglu G, Varinli I, Memisoglu HR, Varinli S, Demircan N, Denli G. PUVA treatment and choroidal malignant melanoma. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1993;71(6):846–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Paller AS, Tom WL, Lebwohl MG, Blumenthal RL, Boguniewicz M, Call RS, et al. Efficacy and safety of crisaborole ointment, a novel, nonsteroidal phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor for the topical treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) in children and adults. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016;75(3):494–503.e6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Baeck M, De Potter P, Goossens A. Allergic contact dermatitis following ocular use of corticosteroids. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2011;27(1):83–92.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Mimesh S, Pratt M. Allergic contact dermatitis from corticosteroids: reproducibility of patch testing and correlation with intradermal testing. Dermatitis. 2006;17(3):137–42.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Shaw DW, Maibach HI, Eichenfield LF. Allergic contact dermatitis from pimecrolimus in a patient with tacrolimus allergy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;56(2):342–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Spector SL, Raizman MB. Conjunctivitis medicamentosa. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1994;94(1):134–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Chisholm SAM, Couch SM, Custer PL. Etiology and management of allergic eyelid dermatitis. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2017;33(4):248–50.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Bielory L. Allergic conjunctivitis: the evolution of therapeutic options. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2012;33(2):129–39.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ousler GW, Workman DA, Torkildsen GL. An open-label, investigator-masked, crossover study of the ocular drying effects of two antihistamines, topical epinastine and systemic loratadine, in adult volunteers with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Clin Ther. 2007;29(4):611–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristen M. Beck
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gerami D. Seitzman
    • 2
  • Eric J. Yang
    • 1
  • Isabelle M. Sanchez
    • 1
  • Wilson Liao
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of DermatologyUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology, Francis I. Proctor FoundationUniversity of California San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations