Characterization of Five Kinds of Wood Vinegar Obtained from Agricultural and Forestry Wastes and Identification of Major Antioxidants in Wood Vinegar

  • Zhanchao Li
  • Zhiquan Zhang
  • Lijie Wu
  • Hanqi Zhang
  • Ziming WangEmail author


Wood vinegar(WV) has a powerful antioxidant activity, but it is unclear which components are responsi-ble for the antioxidant activity. In the present study, the double-column retention index qualitative method was used for the identification of the major components in five kinds of WV. And the major antioxidants of wood vinegar were accurately identified with the aid of Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and authentic standard samples. Our results demonstrate that phenolic compounds are mainly responsible for the powerful antioxidant activity. 2,6-Dimethoxyphenol is the most powerful antioxidant in WV. 2-Methoxyphenol and 3-methyl-1,2-cyclopentane-dione also have an important influence on the antioxidant activity of WV. Our results suggest that the contents of 2-methoxyphenol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and 3-methyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione should act as the criteria for evaluating the antioxidant activity of WV. Our work will provide useful information for WV’s application in the fields of food and medicine as antioxidants.


Antioxidant activity 2,6-Dimethoxyphenol 3-Methyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione 2-Methoxyphenol Retention index Wood vinegar 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



We are grateful to Qitai Carbon Technology Company (Shijiazhuang, China) for experimental assistance.

Supplementary material

40242_2019_8207_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (470 kb)
Supporting information


  1. [1]
    Cai K., Jiang S., Ren C., He Y., Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2012, 92(1), 29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Hwang Y. H., Matsushita Y. I., Sugamoto K., Matsui T., Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2005, 15(5), 1106Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Yatagai M., Nishimoto M., Hori K., Ohira T., Shibata A., Journal of Wood Science, 2002, 48(4), 338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Wu Q., Zhang S., Hou B., Zheng H., Deng W., Liu D., Tang W., Bioresource Technology, 2015, 179, 98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Yamauchi K., Manabe N., Matsumoto Y., Yamauchi K. E., Connec-tive Tissue Research, 2013, 54(6), 416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Lu K. T., Wu L. Y., Holzforschung, 2013, 67(4), 413Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Yang L., Huang J. M., Zu Y. G., Ma C. H., Wang H., Sun X. W., Sun Z., Food Chemistry, 2011, 128(4), 1152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Wang H., Zu G., Yang L., Zu Y. G., Wang H., Zhang Z. H., Zhang Y., Zhang L., Wang H. Z., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2011, 59(24), 13018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Ahmeda A., Hossain M. A., Ismail Z., Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry, 2009, 2(3), 373Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Zhuang X., Wang L., Chen Q., Wu X., Fang J., Science China Tech-nological Sciences, 2017, 60(1), 84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Huang F., Gao P., Chen J., Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences, 1999, 42(6), 644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Dobele G., Dizhbite T., Ponomarenko J., Urbanovich I., Kreicberga J., Kampars V., Holzforschung, 2011, 65(4), 503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Li J., Wang C., Yang Z., Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 2010, 89(2), 218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Guillén M. D., Ibargoitia M. L., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1999, 47(10), 4126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Mathew S., Zakaria Z. A., Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2015, 99(2), 611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Onoda A., Asanoma M., Nukaya H., Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 2016, 80(5), 833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Vitt S. M., Himelbloom B. H., Crapo C. A., Journal of Food Safety, 2001, 21(2), 111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Ho C. L., Lin C. Y., Ka S. M., Chen A., Tasi Y. L., Liu M. L., Chiu Y. C., Hua K. F., PLoS One, 2013, 8(10), e75738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Marumoto S., Yamamoto S. P., Nishimura H., Onomoto K., Yatagai M., Yazaki K., Fujita T., Watanabe T., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2012, 60(36), 9106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Loo A., Jain K., Darah I., Food Chemistry, 2007, 104(1), 300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Loo A., Jain K., Darah I., Food Chemistry, 2008, 107(3), 1151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Ma X., Wei Q., Zhang S., Shi L., Zhao Z., Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 2011, 91(2), 338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Mathew S., Zakaria Z. A., Musa N. F., Process Biochemistry, 2015, 50(11), 1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Yang J. F., Yang C. H., Liang M. T., Gao Z. J., Wu Y. W., Chuang L. Y., Molecules, 2016, 21(9), 1150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Ma C., Song K., Yu J., Yang L., Zhao C., Wang W., Zu G., Zu Y., Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 2013, 104, 38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Ma C., Li W., Zu Y., Yang L., Li J., Molecules, 2014, 19(12), 20821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Li Z., Zhang Z., Wu L., Wang J., Liu Z., Zhang Z., Zhang H., Wang Z., Chem. Res. Chinese Universities, 2017, 33(3), 348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Wei Q., Ma X., Dong J., Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 2010, 87(1), 24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Kim D. O., Lee K. W., Lee H. J., Lee C. Y., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2002, 50(13), 3713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Blois M. S., Nature, 1958, 181(4617), 1199CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Jilin University, The Editorial Department of Chemical Research in Chinese Universities and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhanchao Li
    • 1
  • Zhiquan Zhang
    • 1
  • Lijie Wu
    • 2
  • Hanqi Zhang
    • 1
  • Ziming Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.College of ChemistryJilin UniversityChangchunP. R. China
  2. 2.College of Chinese Materia MediaTianjin University of Traditional Chinese MedicineTianjinP. R. China

Personalised recommendations