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Systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between smoking and the incidence of frailty

  • Sohrab AmiriEmail author
  • Sepideh Behnezhad
review

Summary

Background and objective

Cigarette smoking is one of the main causes of health problems in the world and can also lead to an increased risk of frailty. Our goal is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between smoking and frailty.

Methods

Researchers searched PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Research Gate by using keywords through December 2018. Eligible articles were merged and a meta-analysis was conducted using the random effects method. Finally an analysis was done based on smoking status, and publication bias was assessed as well.

Results

The population analyzed comprised 61,905 people. The risk ratio (RR) of frailty based on smoking was 1.22 with a confidence interval (CI) of 1.12–1.33 (p < 0.001). In current smokers, the RR was 1.63 (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found in former smokers. The results indicated a publication bias in the studies included into the meta-analysis.

Discussion

Smoking increases the risk of disability; therefore, the provision of cigarette smoking cessation treatment can reduce this risk. As the results also showed, former smokers are less likely to be frail.

Keywords

Smoking Frailty Impairment Meta-analysis Systematic review 

Systematische Übersicht und Metaanalyse des Zusammenhangs zwischen Rauchen und der Inzidenz von Gebrechlichkeit

Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund und Ziel

Zigarettenrauchen ist eine der Hauptursachen gesundheitlicher Probleme in der Welt und kann auch zu einem erhöhten Risiko für Gebrechlichkeit führen. Ziel der Autoren ist es, eine systematische Übersicht und Metaanalyse zum Zusammenhang zwischen Rauchen und Gebrechlichkeit zu erstellen.

Methoden

Dazu durchsuchten die Wissenschaftler anhand von Schlüsselwörtern die Datenbanken PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar und Research Gate bis einschließlich Dezember 2018. Geeignete Artikel wurden zusammengeführt, und es erfolgte eine Metaanalyse unter Verwendung der Random-Effects-Methode. Schließlich wurde auf der Grundlage des Raucherstatus eine Auswertung vorgenommen und auch die potenziellen Publikationsfehler untersucht.

Ergebnisse

Die ausgewertete Population umfasste 61.905 Personen. Das relative Risiko (RR) für Gebrechlichkeit auf der Basis von Rauchen betrug 1,22 mit einem Konfidenzintervall (KI) von 1,12–1,33 (p < 0,001). Bei derzeitigen Rauchern lag die RR bei 1,63 (p < 0,001). Für frühere Raucher war kein signifikanter Unterschied festzustellen. Die Ergebnisse wiesen auf eine Publikationsverzerrung der in die Metaanalyse eingeschlossenen Studien hin.

Diskussion

Rauchen erhöht das Risiko einer gesundheitlichen Beeinträchtigung, daher kann das Angebot einer Therapie zur Beendigung des Rauchens dieses Risiko vermindern. Wie die Ergebnisse ebenfalls zeigten, ist die Wahrscheinlichkeit, gebrechlich zu sein, für ehemalige Raucher geringer.

Schlüsselwörter

Rauchen Gebrechlichkeit Krankheitsfolgen Metaanalyse Systematische Übersichtsarbeit 

Notes

Author Contribution

S. Amiri contributed to the formation of the subject, collecting and extracting data, analyzing data and writing the draft. S. Behnezhad contributed to database searches and data extraction and suggested some changes.

Conflict of interest

S. Amiri and S. Behnezhad declare that they have no competing interests. All authors approved the final version of the article before submission.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Lifestyle InstituteBaqiyatallah University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Kharazmi UniversityTehranIran

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