Migraine headache and depression in adults: a systematic Review and Meta-analysis

  • Sohrab AmiriEmail author
  • Sepideh Behnezhad
  • Esfandiar Azad



Migraines have adverse psychological consequences, one of which is the tendency towards depression. This study aimed to investigate the effects of migraine on adults’ depression in the form of a systematic review and meta-analysis


Several scientific databases were searched using relevant keywords until the end of January 2018. After reviewing the titles and abstracts and the full texts, the researchers eventually included 16 eligible articles. Major and sub-group analyses were carried out using random effects. Publication bias was also measured.


Pooled Odd Ratio (PR) = 1.95; and 95% confidence interval (CI) = CI = 1.61–2.35 were obtained in studying the effects of migraine on depression. This effect was equal to OR = 1.81 (95% CI = 1.20–2.72) in cohort studies, and OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.64–2.43 in cross sectional studies. The heterogeneity was high, and no publication bias was found.


Migraine can play an important role in increasing the incidence of depression in affected patients. Therefore, identifying and ultimately treating the disease can be beneficial in reducing the negative psychological effects of this disease.


Migraine Depression Meta-analysis Systematic-review 

Migräne und Depression bei Erwachsenen: Ein systematisches Review und Meta-Analyse


Migräne Depression Meta-Analyse Systematisches Review 


Compliance with ethical guidelines

Conflict of interest

S. Amiri, S. Behnezhad, and E. Azad declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical standards

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sohrab Amiri
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sepideh Behnezhad
    • 2
  • Esfandiar Azad
    • 3
  1. 1.Urmia UniversityUrmiaIran
  2. 2.Department of psychologyKharazmi UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Lifestyle InstituteBaqiyatallah University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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