Practical analysis of aflatoxin M1 reduction in pasteurized Milk using low dose gamma irradiation

  • Mehdi Hassanpour
  • Mohammad Reza RezaieEmail author
  • Amin Baghizadeh
Research article


Milk and dairy products can be exposed to potential dangers such as aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Various factors affect the formation of aflatoxin, which can be due to environmental changes and the lack of suitable substrate for healthy livestock feeding. The goal of this study is to reduce the toxin in pasteurized milk to a level below the European Codex Alimentarius Commission standard. For this purpose, the proper structure of the radioactive granite stone was first designed as a low level gamma irradiation (LLGI) without contact with pasteurized milk, and and the pasteurized milk containing AFM1 that placed in this structure is measured and compared with the control sample values using Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) method. Then, the reduction of the resulting aflatoxin in the milk and the LLGI dose rate are obtained. The LLGI dose rate is calculated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP). For simulation, in addition to the spectrum of gamma radiation emitted by radioactive granites, weight percent of each composition of the pasteurized milk and its component elements are also calculated. The results showed a 51.5% reduction of aflatoxin in pasteurized milk after 4 days and 99% reduction after 8 days compared to the control sample. The LLGI dose rate in milk is 0.39 mGy per day. According to the international atomic energy agency (IAEA) report and pervious results, this dose rate level does not significantly affect chemical and sensory quality of milk, but can extend the shelf-life and provide a safer milk. Therefore, the structure constructed using radioactive granite in this study can be considered as one of the suitable methods for reducing aflatoxin.


Aflatoxin M1 Milk Radioactive granite Gamma irradiation MCNP code 



The authors would like to sincerely thank Mr. Majid Hassanpour for kind help and support received during the course of this work. Also the authors would like to express their sincere appreciation to Mr. Mohammad Hassanpour and Mrs. Mehri Sabour, for financial support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Modern Sciences and TechnologiesGraduate University of Advanced TechnologyKermanIran
  2. 2.Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental SciencesGraduate University of Advanced TechnologyKermanIran

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