Degradation of dimethyl phthalate using persulfate activated by UV and ferrous ions: optimizing operational parameters mechanism and pathway

  • Mojtaba Yegane Badi
  • Ali Esrafili
  • Hasan Pasalari
  • Roshanak Rezaei Kalantary
  • Ehsan Ahmadi
  • Mitra GholamiEmail author
  • Ali AzariEmail author
Research article


The present study aimed to model and optimize the dimethyl phthalate (DMP) degradation from aqueous solution using UVC/ Na2S2O8/Fe2+ system based on the response surface methodology (RSM). A high removal efficiency (97%) and TOC reduction (64.2%) were obtained under optimum conditions i.e. contact time = 90 min, SPS concentration = 0.601 mM/L, Fe2+ = 0.075 mM/L, pH = 11 and DMP concentration = 5 mg/L. Quenching experiments confirmed that sulfate radicals were predominant radical species for DMP degradation. The effect of CO3 on DMP degradation was more complicated than other aquatic background anions. The possible pathway for DMP decomposition was proposed according to HPLC and GC–MS analysis. The average oxidation state (AOS) and carbon oxidation state (COS) values as biodegradability indicators demonstrated that the UVC/SPS/Fe2+ system can improve the bioavailability of DMP over the time. Finally, the performance of UVC/SPS/Fe2+ system for DMP treatment in different aquatic solutions: tap water, surface runoff, treated and raw wastewater were found to be 95.7, 88.5, 80.5, and 56.4%, respectively.

Graphical abstract


DMP Sulfate radicals Statistical analysis BBD Degradation pathway 



This work was supported by: Iran University of Medical Sciences. The authors would like to gratefully appreciate Iran University of Medical Sciences for financial supports (Grant No. 2566).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

Supplementary material

40201_2019_384_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.5 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1576 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mojtaba Yegane Badi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ali Esrafili
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hasan Pasalari
    • 1
    • 2
  • Roshanak Rezaei Kalantary
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ehsan Ahmadi
    • 3
    • 5
  • Mitra Gholami
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ali Azari
    • 4
    • 3
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Research Center for Environmental Health TechnologyIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthIran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthKashan University of Medical SciencesKashanIran
  5. 5.Students’ Scientific Research Center (SSRC)Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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