Advertisement

Trihalomethanes in urban drinking water: measuring exposures and assessing carcinogenic risk

  • Hadi Sadeghi
  • Simin NasseriEmail author
  • Masud Yunesian
  • Amir Hossein Mahvi
  • Ramin Nabizadeh
  • Mahmoud Alimohammadi
Research Article

Abstract

Trihalomethanes (THMs) have been proven to be potentially genotoxic and mutagenic for human. The aim of this study was to characterize the THMs spatiotemporal distribution and its carcinogenic risk potential in Ardabil water distribution system. Water samples were collected over consecutive months from twenty-six points in the city of Ardabil from April 2016 to March 2017. The potential carcinogenic risk assessment of THMs was evaluated quantitatively with uncertainty assessment based on Monte-Carlo simulation technique. The results showed that the mean concentrations of bromodichloromethane, Chloroform, dibromochloromethane and Bromoform in water consumed by residents were 101.97 ± 58.51, 85.18 ± 47.79, 51.67 ± 29.57 and 11.89 ± 6.64 μg/L, respectively, during the sampling period. According to the result of this study, the concentrations of THMs were higher in summer in comparison with other seasons. The mean values of lifetime cancer risks for residents through ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact are 2.85×10-4, 6.46×10-7, and 1.26×10-7, respectively. The lifetime cancer risks for residents through ingestion was found to be 285 times more than the minimum or negligible level set by US.EPA (1.0×10-6) and for dermal contact and inhalation lower than the minimum or negligible level set by US.EPA. The results of the present research may contribute to inform the decision makers of drinking water supply system about the role of water quality in the health of consumers.

Keywords

Carcinogenic risk assessment Trihalomethanes Urban drinking water Ardabil 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper is important part of Ph.D thesis. The authors are grateful for the support from Reference laboratory of East Azarbaijan Province water and wastewater Company, Laboratory of Pharmacy Faculty, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences and Laboratory of School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

References

  1. 1.
    Amjad H, Hashmi I, Rehman MSU, Awan MA, Ghaffar S, Khan Z. Cancer and non-cancer risk assessment of trihalomethanes in urban drinking water supplies of Pakistan. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2013;91:25–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dargahi A, Pirsaheb M, Hazrati S, Fazlzadehdavil M, Khamutian R, Amirian T. Evaluating efficiency of H2O2 on removal of organic matter from drinking water. Desalin Water Treat. 2015;54(6):1589–93.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Azizl E, Fazlzadeh M, Ghayebzadeh M, Hemati L, Beikmohammadi M, Ghaffari HR, et al. Application of advanced oxidation process (H2O2/UV) for removal of organic materials from pharmaceutical industry effluent. Environ Prot Eng. 2017;43(1):183–91.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pan S, An W, Li H, Su M, Zhang J, Yang M. Cancer risk assessment on trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in drinking water of China using disability-adjusted life years. J Hazard Mater. 2014;280:288–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chowdhury S. Exposure assessment for trihalomethanes in municipal drinking water and risk reduction strategy. Sci Total Environ. 2013;463:922–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lee J, Ha K-T, Zoh K-D. Characteristics of trihalomethane (THM) production and associated health risk assessment in swimming pool waters treated with different disinfection methods. Sci Total Environ. 2009;407(6):1990–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhang H, Zhang Y, Shi Q, Hu J, Chu M, Yu J, et al. Study on transformation of natural organic matter in source water during chlorination and its chlorinated products using ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry. Environ Sci Technol. 2012;46(8):4396–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Panyakapo M, Soontornchai S, Paopuree P. Cancer risk assessment from exposure to trihalomethanes in tap water and swimming pool water. J Environ Sci. 2008;20(3):372–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mazloomi S, Nabizadh R, Nasseri S, Naddafi K, Nazmara S, Mahvi A. Efficiency of domestic reverse osmosis in removal of trihalomethanes from drinking water. 2009.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Villanueva CM, Cantor KP, Cordier S, Jaakkola JJ, King WD, Lynch CF, et al. Disinfection byproducts and bladder cancer: a pooled analysis. Epidemiology. 2004;15(3):357–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dehghani MH, Mohammadi M, Mohammadi MA, Mahvi AH, Yetilmezsoy K, Bhatnagar A, et al. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of trihalomethanes adsorption onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2016;227(9):332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: global burden of disease study. Lancet. 1997;349(9063):1436–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu S, Zhu Z, Fan C, Qiu Y, Zhao J. Seasonal variation effects on the formation of trihalomethane during chlorination of water from Yangtze River and associated cancer risk assessment. J Environ Sci. 2011;23(9):1503–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pardakhti AR, Bidhendi GRN, Torabian A, Karbassi A, Yunesian M. Comparative cancer risk assessment of THMs in drinking water from well water sources and surface water sources. Environ Monit Assess. 2011;179(1–4):499–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Grellier J, Rushton L, Briggs DJ, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ. Assessing the human health impacts of exposure to disinfection by-products—a critical review of concepts and methods. Environ Int. 2015;78:61–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Edition F. Guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO chronicle. 2011;38(4):104–8.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ates N, Kaplan SS, Sahinkaya E, Kitis M, Dilek FB, Yetis U. Occurrence of disinfection by-products in low DOC surface waters in Turkey. J Hazard Mater. 2007;142(1–2):526–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li B, Liu R, Liu H, Gu J, Qu J. The formation and distribution of haloacetic acids in copper pipe during chlorination. J Hazard Mater. 2008;152(1):250–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Abbasnia A, Ghoochani M, Yousefi N, Nazmara S, Radfard M, Soleimani H, et al. Prediction of human exposure and health risk assessment to trihalomethanes in indoor swimming pools and risk reduction strategy. Hum Ecol Risk Assess Int J. 2018:1–18.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chowdhury S, Champagne P. Risk from exposure to trihalomethanes during shower: probabilistic assessment and control. Sci Total Environ. 2009;407(5):1570–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chowdhury S, Rodriguez MJ, Sadiq R. Disinfection byproducts in Canadian provinces: associated cancer risks and medical expenses. J Hazard Mater. 2011;187(1–3):574–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Karim Z, Mumtaz M, Kamal T. Health risk assessment of trihalomethanes from tap water in Karachi, Pakistan. J Chem Soc Pak. 2011;33(2):215–9.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Niu Z, Li X, Zhang Y. Composition profiles, levels, distributions and ecological risk assessments of trihalomethanes in surface water from a typical estuary of Bohai Bay, China. Mar Pollut Bull. 2017;117(1–2):124–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gan W, Guo W, Mo J, He Y, Liu Y, Liu W, et al. The occurrence of disinfection by-products in municipal drinking water in China's Pearl River Delta and a multipathway cancer risk assessment. Sci Total Environ. 2013;447:108–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Uyak V. Multi-pathway risk assessment of trihalomethanes exposure in Istanbul drinking water supplies. Environ Int. 2006;32(1):12–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Assessment CR. Proposed guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment. Fed Regist. 1996;61(79):17960–8011.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hazrati S, Rostami R, Fazlzadeh M, Pourfarzi FJAQ, Atmosphere, health. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene concentrations in atmospheric ambient air of gasoline and CNG refueling stations 2016;9(4):403–9.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Munch D, Hautman D. Determination of chlorinated disinfection byproducts, chlorinated solvents, and halogenated pesticides/herbicides in drinking water by liquid–liquid extraction and gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. EPA method. 1995;551(1).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kumari M, Gupta S, Mishra B. Multi-exposure cancer and non-cancer risk assessment of trihalomethanes in drinking water supplies–a case study of eastern region of India. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2015;113:433–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Liang L, Singer PC. Factors influencing the formation and relative distribution of Haloacetic acids and Trihalomethanes in drinking water. Environ Sci Technol. 2003;37(13):2920–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang G-S, Deng Y-C, Lin T-F. Cancer risk assessment from trihalomethanes in drinking water. Sci Total Environ. 2007;387(1–3):86–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hassani A, Jafari M, Torabifar B. Trihalomethanes concentration in different components of watertreatment plant and water distribution system in the north of Iran. Int J Environ Res. 2010;4(4):887–92.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Viana RB, Cavalcante RM, Braga FM, Viana AB, De Araujo JC, Nascimento RF, et al. Risk assessment of trihalomethanes from tap water in Fortaleza, Brazil. Environ Monit Assess. 2009;151(1–4):317–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hadi Sadeghi
    • 1
  • Simin Nasseri
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Masud Yunesian
    • 1
  • Amir Hossein Mahvi
    • 1
    • 3
  • Ramin Nabizadeh
    • 1
    • 4
  • Mahmoud Alimohammadi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Center for Water Quality Research, Institute for Environmental Research (IER)Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Center for Solid Waste Research, Institute for Environmental ResearchTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Center for Air Quality Research, Institute for Environmental Research (IER)Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations