Trihalomethanes in urban drinking water: measuring exposures and assessing carcinogenic risk

  • Hadi Sadeghi
  • Simin NasseriEmail author
  • Masud Yunesian
  • Amir Hossein Mahvi
  • Ramin Nabizadeh
  • Mahmoud Alimohammadi
Research Article


Trihalomethanes (THMs) have been proven to be potentially genotoxic and mutagenic for human. The aim of this study was to characterize the THMs spatiotemporal distribution and its carcinogenic risk potential in Ardabil water distribution system. Water samples were collected over consecutive months from twenty-six points in the city of Ardabil from April 2016 to March 2017. The potential carcinogenic risk assessment of THMs was evaluated quantitatively with uncertainty assessment based on Monte-Carlo simulation technique. The results showed that the mean concentrations of bromodichloromethane, Chloroform, dibromochloromethane and Bromoform in water consumed by residents were 101.97 ± 58.51, 85.18 ± 47.79, 51.67 ± 29.57 and 11.89 ± 6.64 μg/L, respectively, during the sampling period. According to the result of this study, the concentrations of THMs were higher in summer in comparison with other seasons. The mean values of lifetime cancer risks for residents through ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact are 2.85×10-4, 6.46×10-7, and 1.26×10-7, respectively. The lifetime cancer risks for residents through ingestion was found to be 285 times more than the minimum or negligible level set by US.EPA (1.0×10-6) and for dermal contact and inhalation lower than the minimum or negligible level set by US.EPA. The results of the present research may contribute to inform the decision makers of drinking water supply system about the role of water quality in the health of consumers.


Carcinogenic risk assessment Trihalomethanes Urban drinking water Ardabil 



This paper is important part of Ph.D thesis. The authors are grateful for the support from Reference laboratory of East Azarbaijan Province water and wastewater Company, Laboratory of Pharmacy Faculty, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences and Laboratory of School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hadi Sadeghi
    • 1
  • Simin Nasseri
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Masud Yunesian
    • 1
  • Amir Hossein Mahvi
    • 1
    • 3
  • Ramin Nabizadeh
    • 1
    • 4
  • Mahmoud Alimohammadi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Center for Water Quality Research, Institute for Environmental Research (IER)Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Center for Solid Waste Research, Institute for Environmental ResearchTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Center for Air Quality Research, Institute for Environmental Research (IER)Tehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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