Assessment of remote patient monitoring (RPM) systems for patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Sahar Salehi
  • Alireza Olyaeemanesh
  • Mohammadreza MobinizadehEmail author
  • Ensieh Nasli-Esfahani
  • Hossein Riazi
Research article



The objective of this study is to conduct an assessment of Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM) systems compared to usual care for controlling glycosylated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetes.


The study was a systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression. A systematic search was performed via the most important electronic databases of medical resources, such as PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane library. The main outcome was HbA1C. The heterogeneity sources were examined using Chi-square (Q) and I2 tests. Meta-analyses were done using Stata version 11 software. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. Random effects model was used in meta-analysis, and the heterogeneity more than 50% was considered as significant.


The results of the systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that the effect size index (Difference of Pre-test/Post-test Control Design-2nd method “using pooled pretest SD” (DPPC2)) among users of RPM for type 2 diabetic patients was −0.32 with a confidence interval of 95% (from −0.45 to −0.19) as compared to the control group. The current study declared a vital role of RPM technology in reduction of hemoglobin glycogen levels. The results of the subgroup analysis showed that RPM is more effective for patients who are residents of cities, having intervention lengths less than 6 months, getting the orders from the physician and using the websites as their intervention type.


The current study indicted the efficacy of RPM in reducing HbA1c among type 2 diabetic patients, which could be a base for policymakers to decide on the introduction of this technology in Iran.


Remote monitoring Glycosylated hemoglobin Type 2 diabetes Systematic review Meta-analysis 



This research was part of MSc thesis on Health Technology Assessment, which was approved by school of public health, Tehran University of medical Sciences.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Health Management and Economics, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.National Institute for Health Research and Health Equity Research CenterTehran University of Medical ScienceTehranIran
  3. 3.National Institute for Health ResearchTehran University of Medical ScienceTehranIran
  4. 4.Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Shariati HospitalTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Endocrinology and Metabolism Research InstituteTehranIran

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