DM-calendar app as a diabetes self-management education on adult type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial

  • KusnantoEmail author
  • Komang Agus Jerry Widyanata
  • Suprajitno
  • Hidayat Arifin
Research article



Era Disruption 4.0 demands development in the management of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) by using application-based intervention that can facilitate nursing intervention. The aim was to evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus calendar app as a Diabetes Self-Management Education (DSME) program on self-efficacy, HbA1c levels, lipid profile, and insulin in adult type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).


It was randomized experimental design — simple random sampling used with a total sample of 30 respondents. The instruments used diabetes management self-efficacy scales and standard of operational procedure blood sampling. The statistical tests used were a Paired t-test, Wilcoxon, and an Independent t-test.


DSME with an Android-based DM calendar affected self-efficacy (p < 0.001), HbA1c levels (p = 0.005), cholesterol (p = 0.009), triglyceride (p = 0.000), HDL-c (p = 0.048), LDL-c (p = 0.010), and insulin (p = 0.000) compared with the control group. Education with these electronic media has increased the perception of self-efficacy and improved the behavior of good self-management that can be seen from changes in controlled HbA1c level, lipid profile and insulin.


The results of this study can be used as a reference for providing educational experimental in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM).


Diabetes mellitus Telenursing Self-efficacy Lipid profile Insulin 



We would like to thank you to the mayor government and the Head of the Health Primary Care in North Denpasar who have helped and provided policies during the research process.

Conflict of interest

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kusnanto
    • 1
    Email author
  • Komang Agus Jerry Widyanata
    • 1
  • Suprajitno
    • 2
  • Hidayat Arifin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Fundamental, Critical, and Medical-Surgical Nursing, Faculty of NursingUniversitas AirlanggaSurabayaIndonesia
  2. 2.School of NursingEast JavaIndonesia

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