Erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and risk of gestational diabetes
- 2 Downloads
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the regulating enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway. A link between the activity of G6PD and diabetes mellitus has previously been reported. The association of G6PD activity with the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has not yet been investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of erythrocyte G6PD activity with major characteristics of GDM.
This case-control study was conducted at Hafez Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran from March to November 2017. Eighty-four age-matched pregnant women including GDM (n = 33), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; n = 7), and normal glucose tolerance (NGT; n = 44) subjects were enrolled in this study. The levels of erythrocyte G6PD activity, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, malondialdehyde (MDA), and ferric reducing power (FRAP) of serum were measured. The level of homeostasis model for the assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
The values of FPG, insulin, HOMA-IR, G6PD activity, and FRAP were significantly higher in GDM patients compared to NGT subjects. G6PD activity was correlated with FPG ((r = 0.224; P = 0.041). Binary logistic regression analysis revealed independent association of body mass index >25.88 [OR = 3.23, 95% CI 1.071–9.75, P = 0.037], HOMA- IR >2.33 [OR = 7.15, 95% CI 2.26–22.56, P < 0.001], and G6PD activity>21.17 U/g Hb [OR = 4.63, 95% CI 1.49–14.38, P = 0.008] with an increased risk of GDM. No significant change was observed among serum MDA levels in the three groups.
The findings demonstrate that increased G6PD activity is positively associated with the risk of GDM.
KeywordsGlucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase Gestational diabetes Insulin resistance Oxidative stress
This research was financially supported by a research grant from Shiraz Azad University.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
- 5.Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. WHO Working Group. Bull World Health Organ. 1989;67:601–11.Google Scholar
- 13.Choukem SP, Sobngwi E, Garnier JP, Letellier S, Mauvais-Jarvis F, Calvo F, et al. Hyperglycaemia per se does not affect erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in ketosis-prone diabetes. Diabetes Metab. 2015;41:326–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabet.2014.07.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 16.Yang SJ, Kim TN, Baik SH, Kim TS, Lee KW, Nam M, et al. Insulin secretion and insulin resistance in Korean women with gestational diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance. Korean J Intern Med. 2013;28:306–13. https://doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2013.28.3.306.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 18.Takhshid MA, Haem Z, Aboualizadeh F. The association of circulating adiponectin and + 45 T/G polymorphism of adiponectin gene with gestational diabetes mellitus in Iranian population. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2015;14:30. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40200-015-0156-z.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 27.Araujo JR, Ramalho C, Correia-Branco A, Faria A, Ferraz T, Keating E, et al. A parallel increase in placental oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses occurs in pre-gestational type 1 but not gestational diabetes. Placenta. 2013;34:1095–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.placenta.2013.09.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 28.Hajifaraji M, Jahanjou F, Abbasalizadeh F, Aghamohammadzadeh N, Abbasi MM, Dolatkhah N. Effect of probiotic supplements in women with gestational diabetes mellitus on inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers: a randomized clinical trial. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2018;27:581–91. https://doi.org/10.6133/apjcn.082017.03.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 29.Jamilian M, Hashemi Dizaji S, Bahmani F, Taghizadeh M, Memarzadeh MR, Karamali M, et al. A randomized controlled clinical trial investigating the effects of Omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation and pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes. Can J Diabetes. 2017;41:143–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjd.2016.09.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 30.Arribas L, Almansa I, Miranda M, Muriach M, Romero FJ, Villar VM. Serum malondialdehyde concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity in a longitudinal study of gestational diabetes. PLoS One. 2016;11:e0155353. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155353.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 41.Dessi S, Chiodino C, Batetta B, Fadda AM, Anchisi C, Pani P. Hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, cholesterogenesis, and serum lipoproteins in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Exp Mol Pathol. 1986;44:169–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-4800(86)90067-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar