Effects of Ti and Cu on the Microstructure Evolution of AlCoCrFeNi High-Entropy Alloy During Heat Treatment

  • Yuan Yu
  • Peiying Shi
  • Kai Feng
  • Jiongjie Liu
  • Jun Cheng
  • Zhuhui QiaoEmail author
  • Jun Yang
  • Jinshan LiEmail author
  • Weimin Liu


The microstructure evolution of AlCoCrFeNiTi0.5 alloy and AlCoCrFeNiCu alloy during heat treatment was systematically studied, to reveal the influence rules of chemical activity of adding element on the microstructure evolution of AlCoCrFeNi system. Owing to the negative mixing enthalpy with the constituent elements, Ti element was mainly dissolved in the Al–Ni-rich phases, and aggravated the lattice distortion of B2 phase. The structure variation of BCC phase by adding Ti inhibited the formation of FCC phase and enhanced the precipitation of σ phase during heat treatment. Owing to the positive mixing enthalpy with constituent elements, Cu element tended to be repelled to the ID region and formed metastable Cu-rich FCC1 phase which would transform into Cu–Al–Ni-rich FCC2 phase with increasing temperature. The addition of Cu inhibited the precipitation of σ phase during heat treatment. Adding Ti maintained the stable dendritic morphology, while adding Cu reduced the thermal stability of microstructure. Two dramatic morphology changes occurred at 1000 °C and 1100 °C in the AlCoCrFeNiCu alloy. The lattice distortion of phase in AlCoCrFeNiTi0.5 alloy was aggravated with increasing temperature up to 800 °C, then relaxed together with the dissolution of σ phase when temperature was above 900 °C. The variation in lattice distortion dominated the hardness of AlCoCrFeNiTi0.5 alloy. With increasing heating temperature, the increasing volume fraction of region with FCC structure due to the transformation between FCC phases, and the pronounced coarsening in microstructure due to the reduced thermal stability, resulted in the mainly decreasing trend in the hardness of AlCoCrFeNiCu alloy.


High-entropy alloy Heat treatment Microstructure evolution Enthalpy Hardness 



This work was financially supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2018YFB2000100) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51701227 and 51775532); one of the authors (Zhuhui Qiao) appreciates the support of the Taishan scholars Program of Shandong Province and the Outstanding Talents of Qingdao Innovations.


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Copyright information

© The Chinese Society for Metals (CSM) and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuan Yu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Peiying Shi
    • 1
  • Kai Feng
    • 3
  • Jiongjie Liu
    • 1
  • Jun Cheng
    • 1
  • Zhuhui Qiao
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jun Yang
    • 1
  • Jinshan Li
    • 4
    Email author
  • Weimin Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesLanzhouChina
  2. 2.Qingdao Center of Resource Chemistry and New MaterialsQingdaoChina
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle BodyHunan UniversityChangshaChina
  4. 4.State Key Laboratory of Solidification ProcessingNorthwestern Polytechnical UniversityXi’anChina

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