Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)

, Volume 32, Issue 10, pp 1227–1236 | Cite as

Influence of Treatment Sequence on Tribological Performance of Duplex Surface-Treated AISI 1045 Steel

  • Farahnaz Haftlang
  • Ali HabibolahzadehEmail author


The surface of AISI 1045 steel specimens was modified via two duplex surface treatments of (i) titanium diffusion coating followed by plasma nitriding (Ti–PN) and (ii) plasma nitriding followed by titanium diffusion coating (PN–Ti). A comparative study on the microstructure and wear properties of the fabricated TiN coatings was conducted. A scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and pin-on-disk wear test was utilized to evaluate the microstructures, phases, and wear properties of the coatings. XRD patterns of duplex-treated specimens illustrated that the modified layer consisted of nitride and carbo-nitride phases such as TiN and TiC0.7N0.3. The results also showed that Ti–PN treatment led to a low friction coefficient and the lowest wear factors, as compared with the PN–Ti treatment. Oxidation and mild fatigue fracture wear were found to be the main wear mechanism of the Ti–PN coating. The wear mechanism in the PN–Ti specimen involved a higher oxidative wear regime followed by plastic deformation wear regimes.


Duplex surface treatment TiN coating Plasma nitriding Titanium diffusion coating Tribological performance 



The authors would like to thank Semnan University for financial support of this research. The first author also thanks Plasma Pajouh Co. and Mr. A. Ziyari for his assistance in the experiments.


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Copyright information

© The Chinese Society for Metals (CSM) and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of EngineeringUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringSemnan UniversitySemnanIran

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