Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg–RE–TM Cast Alloys Containing Long Period Stacking Ordered Phases: A Review

  • Huan Liu
  • He Huang
  • Jia-Peng Sun
  • Ce Wang
  • Jing Bai
  • Ai-Bin Ma
  • Xian-Hua Chen


Casting magnesium alloys hold the greatest share of magnesium application products due to their short processing period, low cost and near net shape forming. Compared with conventional commercial magnesium alloys or other Mg–RE-based alloys, the novel Mg–RE–TM cast alloys with long period stacking ordered (LPSO) phases usually possess a higher strength and are promising candidates for aluminum alloy applications. Up to now, two ways: alloying design and casting process control (including subsequent heat treatments), have been predominantly employed to further improve the mechanical properties of these alloys. Alloying with other elements or ceramic particles could alter the solidification pattern of alloys, change the morphology of LPSO phases and refine the microstructures. Different casting techniques (conventional casting, rapidly solidification, directional solidification, etc.) introduce various microstructure characteristics, such as dendritic structure, nanocrystalline, metastable phase, anisotropy. Further heat treatments could activate the transformation of various LPSO structures and precipitation of diverse precipitates. All these evolutions exert great impacts on the mechanical properties of the LPSO-containing alloys. However, the underlying mechanisms still remain a subject of debate. Therefore, this review mainly provides the state of the art of the casting magnesium alloys research and the accompanying challenges and summarizes some topics that merit future investigation for developing high-performance Mg–RE–TM cast alloys.


Magnesium alloys Long period stacking ordered phase Casting Heat treatment Phase transformations Mechanical properties 



The authors thank for the supports of the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (No. BK20160869), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2018B16614) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51774109).


  1. [1]
    J.H. Zhang, S.J. Liu, R.Z. Wu, L.G. Hou, M.L. Zhang, J. Magnes. Alloys 6, 277 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Y.S. Li, C.L. Yang, X.Q. Zeng, P.P. Jin, D. Qiu, W.J. Ding, Mater. Charact. 141, 286 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Z. Luo, S. Zhang, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 19, 813 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Z. Luo, S. Zhang, Y. Tang, D. Zhao, J. Alloys Compd. 209, 275 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Y. Kawamura, K. Hayashi, A. Inoue, T. Masumoto, Mater. Trans. 42, 1172 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Y. Kawamura, M. Yamasaki, Mater. Trans. 48, 2986 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    S.Q. Yin, Z.Q. Zhang, X. Liu, Q.C. Le, Q. Lan, L. Bao, J.Z. Cui, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 695, 135 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Y. Kawamura, T. Kasahara, S. Izumi, M. Yamasaki, Sci. Mater. 55, 453 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    H. Liu, F. Xue, J. Bai, J. Zhou, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 22, 3500 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    H. Liu, F. Xue, J. Bai, J. Zhou, X.D. Liu, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 585, 387 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    W. Liu, J.S. Zhang, C.X. Xu, X.M. Zong, W. Zhu, Q.Q. Ma, J. Mater. Sci. 22, 13271 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    J. Yin, C.H. Lu, X.J. Ma, B.Y. Dai, H.L. Chen, Intermetallics 68, 63 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Z.Z. Peng, X.H. Shao, Q.Q. Jin, C.H. Li, X.L. Ma, Scr. Mater. 116, 57 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    K. Kishida, H. Yokobayashi, H. Inui, M. Yamasaki, Y. Kawamura, Intermetallics 31, 55 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    D.K. Xu, E.H. Han, Y.B. Xu, Prog. Nat. Sci. Mater. 26, 117 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    M. Matsuda, S. Ii, Y. Kawamura, Y. Ikuhara, M. Nishida, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 393, 269 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    K. Hagihara, T. Okamoto, H. Izuno, M. Yamasaki, M. Matsushita, T. Nakano, Y. Kawamura, Acta Mater. 109, 90 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Y.M. Zhu, A.J. Morton, J.F. Nie, Acta Mater. 60, 6562 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    C. Liu, Y.M. Zhu, Q. Luo, B. Liu, Q.F. Gu, Q. Li, J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 34, 2235 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    J.F. Nie, Y.M. Zhu, A.J. Morton, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 45, 3338 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    H. Liu, F. Xue, J. Bai, Y.S. Sun, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 585, 261 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    X.J. Wang, D.K. Xu, R.Z. Wu, X.B. Chen, Q.M. Peng, L. Jin, Y.C. Xin, Z.Q. Zhang, Y. Liu, X.H. Chen, G. Chen, K.K. Deng, H.Y. Wang, J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 34, 245 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    H. Liu, F. Xue, J. Bai, J. Zhou, Y.S. Sun, Rare Met. Mater. Eng. 24, 570 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    J.F. Wang, P.F. Song, S. Gao, Y.Y. Wei, F.S. Pan, J. Mater. Sci. 47, 2005 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    J. Gröbner, A. Kozlov, X.Y. Fang, J. Geng, J.F. Nie, R. Schmid-Fetzer, Acta Mater. 60, 5948 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    N. Tahreen, D.F. Zhang, F.S. Pan, X.Q. Jiang, D.Y. Li, D.L. Chen, J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 34, 1110 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Y.L. Chen, L. Jin, J. Dong, F.H. Wang, Y.X. Li, Y.L. Li, H.C. Pan, X. Nie, Mater. Charact. 134, 253 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Y. Li, W.L. Xiao, F. Wang, T. Hu, C.L. Ma, J. Alloys Compd. 745, 33 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    C. Xu, G.H. Fan, T. Nakata, X. Liang, Y.Q. Chi, X.G. Qiao, G.J. Cao, T.T. Zhang, M. Huang, K.S. Miao, M.Y. Zheng, S. Kamado, H.L. Xie, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 49, 1931 (2018)Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Z.J. Yu, C. Xu, J. Meng, X.H. Zhang, S. Kamado, J. Alloys Compd. 729, 627 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    X.J. Zhou, C.M. Liu, Y.H. Gao, S.N. Jiang, X.Z. Han, Z.Y. Chen, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 48, 3060 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    K. Wen, W.B. Du, K. Liu, Z.H. Wang, S.B. Li, Rare Met. 35, 443 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    K. Wen, W.B. Du, K. Liu, Z.H. Wang, S.B. Li, Rare Met. 35, 367 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    J.H. Zhang, Z. Leng, S.J. Liu, J.Q. Li, M.L. Zhang, R.Z. Wu, J. Alloys Compd. 509, 7717 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    L. Zhang, J.H. Zhang, Z. Leng, S.J. Liu, Q. Yang, R.Z. Wu, M.L. Zhang, Mater. Des. 54, 256 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Z.J. Yu, Y.D. Huang, W.M. Gan, C.L. Mendis, Z.Y. Zhong, H.G. Brokmeier, N. Hort, J. Meng, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 657, 259 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    H. Liu, J. Ju, X.W. Yang, J.L. Yan, D. Song, J.H. Jiang, A.B. Ma, J. Alloys Compd. 704, 509 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    H. Liu, J. Ju, F.M. Lu, J.L. Yan, J. Bai, J.H. Jiang, A.B. Ma, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 682, 255 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    J. Zhu, X.H. Chen, L. Wang, W.Y. Wang, Z.K. Liu, J.X. Liu, X.D. Hui, J. Alloys Compd. 703, 508 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    E. Abe, Y. Kawamura, K. Hayashi, A. Inoue, Acta Mater. 50, 3845 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    G. Garcés, G. Requena, D. Tolnai, P. Pérez, J. Medina, A. Stark, N. Schell, P. Adeva, Mater. Charact. 118, 514 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    K. Liu, W.B. Du, S.B. Li, Z.H. Wang, J. Magnes. Alloys 4, 99 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    P. Pérez, G. Garcés, M. Maeso, P. Adeva, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 43, 4383 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. [44]
    B.S. Wang, Y.B. Liu, J. An, R.G. Li, Z.G. Su, G.H. Su, Y. Lu, Z.Y. Cao, Mater. Trans. 49, 1768 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    B.S. Wang, Y.B. Liu, J. An, R.G. Li, Z.G. Su, Z.Y. Cao, Trans. Nonferrous Metal. Soc. 18, s69 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [46]
    K. Hagihara, Z.X. Li, M. Yamasaki, Y. Kawamura, T. Nakano, Mater. Lett. 214, 119 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. [47]
    M. Yamasaki, M. Matsushita, K. Hagihara, H. Izuno, E. Abe, Y. Kawamura, Scr. Mater. 78–79, 13 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. [48]
    M. Tane, Y. Nagai, H. Kimizuka, K. Hagihara, Y. Kawamura, Acta Mater. 61, 6338 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    K. Hagihara, M. Honnami, R. Matsumoto, Y. Fukusumi, H. Izuno, M. Yamasaki, T. Okamoto, T. Nakano, Y. Kawamura, Mater. Trans. 56, 943 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. [50]
    K. Hagihara, Y. Fukusumi, M. Yamasaki, T. Nakano, Y. Kawamura, Mater. Trans. 54, 693 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. [51]
    K. Hagihara, Y. Sugino, Y. Fukusumi, Y. Umakoshi, T. Nakano, Mater. Trans. 52, 1096 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    K. Hagihara, N. Yokotani, Y. Umakoshi, Intermetallics 18, 267 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. [53]
    Z.C. Xu, Z.X. Feng, Q.N. Shi, Y.X. Yang, X.Q. Wang, H.R. Qi, Mater. Rev. 32, 865 (2018)Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    J.W. Dai, X.B. Zhang, Y. Fei, Z.Z. Wang, H.M. Sui, Acta Metall. Sin. (Engl. Lett.) 31, 865 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. [55]
    L.T. Yuan, G.L. Bi, Y.D. Li, J. Jiang, Y.X. Han, D.Q. Fang, Y. Ma, Trans. Nonferrous Metal. Soc. 27, 2381 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. [56]
    M. Li, X. Wang, Q.Y. Feng, J. Wang, Z. Xu, P.H. Zhang, Mater. Charact. 125, 123 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. [57]
    J.F. Wang, P.F. Song, S. Huang, F.S. Pan, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 563, 36 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. [58]
    W. Rong, Y.J. Wu, Y. Zhang, M. Sun, J. Chen, L.M. Peng, W.J. Ding, Mater. Charact. 126, 1 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. [59]
    J.C. Li, Z.L. He, P.H. Fu, Y.J. Wu, L.M. Peng, W.J. Ding, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 651, 745 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. [60]
    G.D. Zou, X.C. Cai, D.Q. Fang, Z. Wang, T.S. Zhao, Q.M. Peng, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 620, 10 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. [61]
    H. Liu, H. Huang, X.W. Yang, C. Li, J.L. Yan, J.H. Jiang, A.B. Ma, J. Magnes. Alloys 5, 231 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. [62]
    H. Liu, Z.J. Cheng, K. Yan, J.L. Yan, J. Bai, J.H. Jiang, A.B. Ma, J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 32, 1274 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. [63]
    W.T. Sun, C. Xu, X.G. Qiao, M.Y. Zheng, S. Kamado, N. Gao, M.J. Starink, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 700, 312 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. [64]
    R. Lapovok, X. Gao, J.F. Nie, Y. Estrin, S.N. Mathaudhu, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 615, 198 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. [65]
    X.W. Li, F.Y. Zheng, Y.J. Wu, L.M. Peng, Y. Zhang, D.L. Lin, W.J. Ding, Mater. Lett. 113, 206 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. [66]
    Q. Yang, B.L. Xiao, D. Wang, M.Y. Zheng, K. Wu, Z.Y. Ma, J. Alloys Compd. 581, 585 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. [67]
    F.S. Pan, M.B. Yang, X.H. Chen, J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 32, 1211 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. [68]
    K. Yang, J.S. Zhang, X.M. Zong, W.X. Wang, C.X. Xu, W.L. Cheng, K.B. Nie, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 669, 340 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. [69]
    S.Q. Luo, A.T. Tang, F.S. Pan, K. Song, W.Q. Wang, Trans. Nonferrous Metal. Soc. 21, 795 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. [70]
    C.Q. Li, D.K. Xu, Z.R. Zeng, B.J. Wang, L.Y. Sheng, X.B. Chen, E.H. Han, Mater. Des. 121, 430 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. [71]
    E. Oñorbe, G. Garcés, P. Pérez, P. Adeva, J. Mater. Sci. 47, 1085 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. [72]
    B. Chen, D.L. Lin, X.Q. Zeng, C. Lu, J. Mater. Sci. 45, 2510 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. [73]
    Y.J. Wu, D.L. Lin, X.Q. Zeng, L.M. Peng, W.J. Ding, J. Mater. Sci. 44, 1607 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. [74]
    Y.M. Zhu, A.J. Morton, J.F. Nie, Acta Mater. 58, 2936 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. [75]
    Y.X. Du, Y.J. Wu, L.M. Peng, J. Chen, X.Q. Zeng, W.J. Ding, Mater. Lett. 169, 168 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. [76]
    M. Yamasaki, K. Hashimoto, K. Hagihara, Y. Kawamura, Acta Mater. 59, 3646 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. [77]
    S. Zhang, G.Y. Yuan, C. Lu, W.J. Ding, J. Alloys Compd. 509, 3515 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. [78]
    J.S. Zhang, W.B. Zhang, X.Q. Ruan, L.P. Bian, W.L. Cheng, H.X. Wang, C.X. Xu, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 560, 847 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. [79]
    J.S. Zhang, C. Xin, W.L. Cheng, L.P. Bian, H.X. Wang, C.X. Xu, J. Alloys Compd. 558, 195 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. [80]
    J.S. Zhang, C.J. Chen, Z.P. Que, W.L. Cheng, J.D. Xu, J.J. Kang, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 552, 81 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. [81]
    J. Wang, J.S. Zhang, X.M. Zong, C.X. Xu, Z.Y. You, K.B. Nie, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 648, 37 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. [82]
    X. Zhao, L.L. Shi, J. Xu, J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. 18, 181 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. [83]
    P. Cheng, Y.H. Zhao, R.P. Lu, H. Hou, Z.Q. Bu, F. Yan, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 708, 482 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. [84]
    J.J. Gao, Y.A. Chen, Y. Wang, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 711, 334 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. [85]
    D. Li, J.S. Zhang, Z.P. Que, C.X. Xu, X.F. Niu, Mater. Lett. 109, 46 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. [86]
    Y. Li, Z. Zhang, J.S. Zhang, Y.B. Ma, Y.T. Zhang, C.X. Xu, Adv. Eng. Mater. 20, 1800131 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. [87]
    Y.B. Ma, J.S. Zhang, C.X. Xu, Y. Li, Y.T. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 724, 529 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. [88]
    J.H. Zhang, L.J. Xu, Y.F. Jiao, C. Xu, L. Zhang, S.J. Liu, J. Meng, R.Z. Wu, M.L. Zhang, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 610, 139 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. [89]
    T. Itoi, T. Seimiya, Y. Kawamura, M. Hirohashi, Scr. Mater. 51, 107 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. [90]
    M. Yamasaki, M. Sasaki, M. Nishijima, K. Hiraga, Y. Kawamura, Acta Mater. 55, 6798 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. [91]
    H. Liu, J. Bai, K. Yan, J.L. Yan, A.B. Ma, J.H. Jiang, Mater. Des. 93, 9 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. [92]
    D.J. Li, X.Q. Zeng, J. Dong, C.Q. Zhai, Trans. Nonferrous Metal. Soc. 18, s117 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. [93]
    H. Liu, F. Xue, J. Bai, A.B. Ma, J.H. Jiang, J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 32, 1267 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. [94]
    X.Y. Tan, K.H.W. Chee, K.W.J. Chan, K.W.O. Richard, G. Manoj, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 644, 405 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. [95]
    H. Liu, K. Yan, J.L. Yan, F. Xue, J.P. Sun, J.H. Jiang, A.B. Ma, Trans. Nonferrous Metal. Soc. 27, 63 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. [96]
    Y.M. Zhu, M. Weyland, A.J. Morton, K. Oh-ishi, K. Hono, J.F. Nie, Scr. Mater. 60, 980 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. [97]
    J.F. Nie, K. Oh-ishi, X. Gao, K. Hono, Acta Mater. 56, 6061 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. [98]
    Y.M. Zhu, A.J. Morton, M. Weyland, J.F. Nie, Acta Mater. 58, 464 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. [99]
    D.D. Yin, Q.D. Wang, Y. Gao, C.J. Chen, J. Zheng, J. Alloys Compd. 509, 1696 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. [100]
    S. Zhang, W.C. Liu, X.Y. Gu, C. Lu, G.Y. Yuan, W.J. Ding, J. Alloys Compd. 557, 91 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. [101]
    Y.X. Li, D. Qiu, Y.H. Rong, M.X. Zhang, Intermetallics 40, 45 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. [102]
    M. Nishijima, K. Hiraga, Mater. Trans. 48, 10 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. [103]
    M. Nishijima, K. Yubuta, K. Hiraga, Mater. Trans. 48, 84 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. [104]
    K. Saito, K. Hiraga, Mater. Trans. 52, 1860 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. [105]
    A. Issa, J.E. Saal, C. Wolverton, Acta Mater. 83, 75 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. [106]
    J.F. Nie, N.C. Wilson, Y.M. Zhu, Z. Xu, Acta Mater. 106, 260 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. [107]
    W. Fu, R.H. Wang, H. Xue, J. Kuang, J.Y. Zhang, G. Liu, J. Sun, J. Alloys Compd. 747, 197 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. [108]
    Z. Xu, M. Weyland, J.F. Nie, Acta Mater. 81, 58 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. [109]
    X.F. Gu, T. Furuhara, T. Kiguchi, T.J. Konno, L. Chen, P. Yang, Scr. Mater. 146, 64 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. [110]
    Z. Li, J. Zheng, B. Chen, Mater. Charact. 120, 345 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. [111]
    Y.M. Zhu, K. Oh-ishi, N.C. Wilson, K. Hono, A.J. Morton, J.F. Nie, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 47, 927 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. [112]
    M. Nishijima, K. Hiraga, M. Yamasaki, Y. Kawamura, Mater. Trans. 49, 227 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. [113]
    J.X. Zheng, B. Chen, Mater. Lett. 176, 223 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. [114]
    K. Hagihara, A. Kinoshita, Y. Sugino, M. Yamasaki, Y. Kawamura, H.Y. Yasuda, Y. Umakoshi, Intermetallics 18, 1079 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. [115]
    K. Hagihara, A. Kinoshita, Y. Sugino, M. Yamasaki, Y. Kawamura, H.Y. Yasuda, Y. Umakoshi, Acta Mater. 58, 6282 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. [116]
    X. Yang, S.S. Wu, S.L. Lü, L.Y. Hao, X.G. Fang, Ultrason. Sonochem. 40, 472 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. [117]
    J.W. Lu, D.D. Yin, L.B. Ren, G.F. Quan, J. Mater. Sci. 51, 10464 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. [118]
    D.D. Wang, W.B. Zhang, X.M. Zong, K.B. Nie, C.X. Xu, J.S. Zhang, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 618, 355 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. [119]
    M. Li, K. Zhang, X.G. Li, Y.J. Li, M.L. Ma, G.L. Shi, J.W. Yuan, T. Li, J.B. Liu, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 626, 415 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. [120]
    X.H. Shao, Z.Q. Yang, X.L. Ma, Acta Mater. 58, 4760 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. [121]
    G. Garcés, E. Oñorbe, F. Dobes, P. Pérez, J.M. Antoranz, P. Adeva, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 539, 48 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. [122]
    A. Srinivasan, H. Dieringa, C.L. Mendis, Y. Huang, R. Rajesh Kumar, K.U. Kainer, N. Hort, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 649, 158 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. [123]
    X.R. Zhu, J. Wang, Y.D. Xu, R. Wang, J.J. Nie, L.P. Zhu, J. Rare Earth 31, 186 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. [124]
    H. Liu, F. Xue, J. Bai, J. Zhou, Y.S. Sun, J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 30, 128 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Chinese Society for Metals (CSM) and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Mechanics and MaterialsHohai UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.College of Materials Science and EngineeringSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina
  3. 3.National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys (CCMg)Chongqing UniversityChongqingChina

Personalised recommendations