Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters)

, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 74–88 | Cite as

Microstructural Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Low-Alloy, Medium-Carbon Steels After Multiple Tempering

  • Erfan AbbasiEmail author
  • Quanshun Luo
  • Dave Owens


The microstructure and mechanical properties of NiCrMoV- and NiCrSi-alloyed medium-carbon steels were investigated after multiple tempering. After austenitising, the steels were hardened by oil quenching and subsequently double or triple tempered at temperatures from 250 to 500 °C. The samples were characterised using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, while the mechanical properties were evaluated by Vickers hardness testing, V-notched Charpy impact testing and tensile testing. The results showed that the retained austenite was stable up to 400 °C and the applied multiple tempering below this temperature did not lead to a complete decomposition of retained austenite in both steels. It was also found that the microstructure, hardness and impact toughness varied mainly as a function of tempering temperature, regardless of the number of tempering stages. Moreover, the impact toughness of NiCrMoV steel was rather similar after single/triple tempering at different temperatures, while NiCrSi steel exhibited tempered martensite embrittlement after single/double tempering at 400 °C. The observed difference was mainly attributed to the effect of precipitation behaviour due to the effect of alloying additions in the studied steels.


Medium-carbon steels Multiple tempering Alloying addition Mechanical properties Retained austenite Precipitation behaviour 



The authors would like to acknowledge the sponsorship provided by Innovate UK through the Knowledge Transfer Partnership Programme (KTP010269 Sheffield Hallam University and Tyzack Machine Knives Ltd.).


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Copyright information

© The Chinese Society for Metals and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Materials and Engineering Research InstituteSheffield Hallam UniversitySheffieldUK
  2. 2.Tyzack Machine Knives LtdSheffieldUK

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