The microstructural evolution of pure nickel treated by deep rolling (DR) technique with different indent depths was investigated by means of optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The surface roughness, hardness and residual stress distribution along the depth from surface were measured. Moreover, the DR-treated sample was annealed at temperatures from 300 to 700 °C for 2 h. The results reveal that dislocation movements are the fundamental mechanisms of gradient grain refinement during the DR process. With increasing indent depth of the DR, the gradient microhardness on the cross section of sample significantly increases, the maximum compressive residual stress decreases, and the affecting region of residual stress increases. The results of thermal stability depict that the microstructure can be stable as temperature up to 300 °C, and the abnormal grain growth and annealing twins are observed at 600 °C.
Deep rolling Pure nickel Microstructural evolution Mechanical properties Thermal stability
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The authors would like to acknowledge gratefully for the financial support through the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51725503, 51605164 and 51575183) and 111 Project. X.C. Zhang is also grateful for the support by Shanghai Technology Innovation Program of SHEITC (CXY-2015-001), Fok Ying Tung Education Foundation and Young Program of Yangtze River Scholars. Y.F. Jia is also grateful for the support by Shanghai Sailing Program (16YF1402300) and Shanghai Chenguang Program (16CG34).
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