Advertisement

Numerical investigation of stirred zone shape and its effect on mechanical properties in friction stir welding process

  • Prashant PrakashEmail author
  • Sanjay Kumar Jha
  • Shree Prakash Lal
Research Paper
  • 11 Downloads

Abstract

This article presents the numerical investigation of the stirred zone shape and its effects on the mechanical properties of the weld joint in the friction stir welding process using computational fluid dynamics. For the numerical prediction of stirred zone shape, four different tool probe profiles are used, namely cylindrical, conical, cylindrical-conical and stepped-conical probes. The stirred zone material is considered as non-Newtonian fluids, and simulation is done under the transient state. The shape of the stirred zone is determined by critical viscosity which depends on the temperature and material flow velocity. The numerical result shows that the stepped-conical probe profile tool develops high peak temperature and uniform variation of the material flow along with the thickness of the workpiece. The numerically predicted weld zone shape is compared with the experimental weld zone shape. To predict the effect of weld zone shape on mechanical properties, experiments are conducted using the tool probe profile. The mechanical properties are determined by experimentally analysing the effect of stirred weld zone shape. The numerical predicated stirred zone shape and experimentally developed stirred zone shape are compared. The vase-shaped stirred zone is developed for all the probe profiles, and the stepped-conical probe profile tool produces a cylinder-dominant vase shape. The weld joint developed by the stepped-conical probe profile tool produces good mechanical properties and enhances ductile fracture mode as compared to other probe profile tools.

Keywords

Tool probe profiles Stirred zone shape Temperature distribution Material flow Viscosity Mechanical properties Friction stir welding 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, India, and to the Department of Production Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, India, for extending the facilities of the material testing laboratory to carry out this investigation.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Gibson BT, Lammlein DH, Prater TJ, Longhurst WR, Cox CD, Ballun MC, Dharmaraj KJ, Cook GE, Strauss AM (2014) Friction stir welding: process, automation, and control. J Manuf Process 16:56–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thomas WM, Johnson KI, Wiesner CS (2003) Friction stir welding—recent developments in tool and process technologies. Adv Eng Mater 18:485–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mishra RS, Ma ZY (2005) Friction stir welding and processing. Mater Sci and Eng R 50:1–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kumar KS, Kailas SV (2008) The role of friction stir welding tool on material flow and weld formation. Mater Sci Eng A 485:367–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    He X, Gu F, Ball A (2014) A review of numerical analysis of friction stir welding. Prog Mater Sci 65:1–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hasan AF, Bennett CJ, Shipway PH (2015) A numerical comparison of the flow behaviour in friction stir welding (FSW) using unworn and worn tool geometries. Mater Des 87:1037–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nandan R, Roy GG, Debroy T (2006) Numerical simulation of three-dimensional heat transfer and plastic flow during friction stir welding. Metall Mater Transact A 37:1247–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Su H, Wu CS, Bachmann M, Rethmeier M (2015) Numerical modeling for the effect of probe profiles on thermal and material flow characteristics in friction stir welding. Mater Des 15:114–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhang J, Shen Y, Li B, Xu H, Yao X, Kuang B, Gao J (2014) Numerical simulation and experimental investigation on friction stir welding of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy. Mater Des 60:94–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ji SD, Shi QY, Zhang LG, Zou AL, Gao SS, Zan LV (2012) Numerical simulation of material flow behavior of friction stir welding influenced by rotational tool geometry. Comput Mater Sci 63:218–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mohanty H, Mahapatra MM, Kumar P, Biswas P, Mandal NR (2012) Study on the effect of tool profiles on temperature distribution and material flow characteristics in friction stir welding. Proc Inst Mech Eng B J Eng Manuf 226(9):1527–1535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kadian AK, Biswas P (2017) Effect of tool probe profile on the material flow characteristics of AA6061. J Manuf Process 26:382–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhao YH, Lin SB, Qu FX, Wu L (2005) Influence of pin geometry on material flow in friction stir welding process. Mater Lett 59(23):2948–2952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Suresha CN, Rajaprakash BM, Upadhya S (2011) A study of the effect of tool pin profiles on tensile strength of welded joints produced using friction stir welding process. Mater Manuf Process 26(9):1111–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gadakh VS, Kumar A (2014) Friction stir welding window for AA6061-T6 aluminium alloy. Proc Inst Mech Eng B J Eng Manuf 228(9):1172–1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liu HJ, Fujii H, Maeda M, Nogi K (2003) Tensile properties and fracture locations of friction-stir-welded joints of 2017-T351 aluminum alloy. J Mater Process Technol 142(3):692–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Prisco U, Squillace A, Astarita A, Velotti C (2013) Influence of welding parameters and post-weld aging on tensile properties and fracture location of AA2139-T351 friction-stir-welded joints. Mater Res 16(5):1106–1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Neto DM, Neto P (2013) Numerical modeling of friction stir welding process: a literature review. Int J Adv Manuf Tech 1:1–2Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schmidt H, Hattel J, Wert J (2003) An analytical model for the heat generation in friction stir welding. Mod Simu Mater Sci Eng 12:143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shi L, Wu CS (2017) Transient model of heat transfer and material flow at different stages of friction stir welding process. J Manuf Process 25:323–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kadian AK, Biswas P (2015) A comparative study of material flow behavior in friction stir welding using laminar and turbulent models. J Mater Eng Perf 24:4119–4127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Muthukumaran S, Mukherjee SK (2008) Multi-layered metal flow and formation of onion rings in friction stir welds. Int J Advan Manuf Tech 38(1-2):68–73Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jain R, Pal SK, Singh SB (2016) A study on the variation of forces and temperature in a friction stir welding process: a finite element approach. J Manuf Process 23:278–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Salari E, Jahazi M, Khodabandeh A, Ghasemi-Nanesa H (2014) Influence of tool geometry and rotational speed on mechanical properties and defect formation in friction stir lap welded 5456 aluminium alloy sheets. Mater Des 58:381–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kumar A, Raju LS (2012) Influence of tool probe profiles on friction stir welding of copper. Mater Manuf Process 27:1414–1418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Xu W, Liu J, Zhu H, Fu L (2013) Influence of welding parameters and tool probe profile on microstructure and mechanical properties along the thickness in a friction stir welded aluminium alloy. Mater Des 47:599–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yuqing M, Liming K, Fencheng L, Yuhua C, Li X (2017) Effect of tool probe-tip profiles on material flow and mechanical properties of friction stir welding thick AA7075-T6 alloy joints. Int J Advan Manuf Tech 88:949–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kumar K, Kailas SV, Srivatsan TS (2008) Influence of tool geometry in friction stir welding. Mater Manuf Process 23(2):188–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dawood HI, Mohammed KS, Rahmat A, Uday MB (2015) Effect of small tool probe profiles on microstructures and mechanical properties of 6061 aluminum alloy by friction stir welding. Trans Non Metals Soc China 25:2856–2865CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Institute of Welding 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Prashant Prakash
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sanjay Kumar Jha
    • 2
  • Shree Prakash Lal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Production EngineeringBirla Institute of TechnologyPatnaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Production EngineeringBirla Institute of TechnologyRanchiIndia

Personalised recommendations