Effects of supporting plate hole and welding force on weld formation and mechanical property of friction plug joints for AA2219-T87 friction stir welds

  • Bo Du
  • Xinqi YangEmail author
  • Kaixuan Liu
  • Zhuanping Sun
  • Dongpo Wang
Research Paper


Friction plug welding (FPW) experiments were performed on 8-mm-thick 2219-T87 FSW welds to investigate the weld formation, microstructure, hardness distribution, mechanical property, and fracture behaviors of FPW joint. The main findings are as follows: geometric size of supporting plate hole and welding force exert great effect on weld formation and mechanical property. Recrystallized zone (RZ) with varied width is observed on the bonding interface between the plug and base metal due to huge friction heat and deformation. Softening is found near the bonding interface due to the disappearance of cold working and transformation of constituent particles. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation of FPW joint can reach 336.3MPa and 8%, respectively. The initial fracture of tensile specimen is prone to locate at the lower part of RZ. The tensile fracture morphology of FPW joint is characterized by dimples.


Friction plug welding AA2219-T87 aluminum alloy FSW weld Supporting plate hole Microstructure Mechanical property 



Great thanks are given to Jianling Song and Tianjin Long March Rocket Manufacture Co., Ltd. for the help in the experimental process.

Funding information

The study is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51475327).


  1. 1.
    Jha AK, Ramesh Narayanan P, Sreekumar K (2009) Liquation cracking of Al-6.3 Cu alloy propellant storage tank—a case study. Eng Fail Anal 16(5):1587–1596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Malarvizhi S, Raghukandan K, Viswanathan N (2008) Fatigue behaviour of post weld heat treated electron beam welded AA2219 aluminium alloy joints. Mater Des 29(8):1562–1567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arora KS, Pandey S, Schaper M, Kumar R (2010) Effect of process parameters on friction stir welding of aluminum alloy 2219-T87. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 50(9–12):941–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Horton KR (2011) Microhardness, strength and strain field characterization of self-reacting friction stir and plug welds of dissimilar aluminum alloys. Dissertation, University of AlabamaGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hartley PJ (2000) Friction plug weld repair for the space shuttle external tank. NASA Document. Document ID 20000093962Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Coletta ER, Cantrell MA (2001) Friction pull plug welding: dual chamfered plate hole. United States Patent. Patent No. 6230958B1Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Takeshita R, Hibbard TL (2001) Friction pull plug welding. United States Patent. Patent No. 6213379B1Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Coletta ER, Cantrell MA (2002) Friction pull plug welding: top hat plug design. United States Patent. Patent No. 6386419B2Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Coletta ER, Cantrell MA (2005) Friction pull plug welding: chamfered heat sink pull plug design. United States Patent. Patent No. 6880743B1Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Metz DF, Weishaupt ER, Barkey ME, Fairbee BS (2012) A microstructure and microhardness characterization of a friction plug weld in friction stir welded 2195 Al-Li. J Eng Mater Technol 134(2):021005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Metz DF, Barkey ME (2012) Fatigue behavior of friction plug welds in 2195 Al-Li alloy. Int J Fatigue 43:178–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Metz DF, Barkey ME et al Experimental and numerical characterization of the fatigue and fracture properties of friction plug welds in 2195-T8 aluminum lithium alloy. Dissertation, University of AlabamaGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Du B, Sun Z, Yang X et al (2016) Characteristics of friction plug welding to 10mm thick AA2219-T87 sheet: weld formation, microstructure and mechanical property. Mater Sci Eng A 654:21–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Du B, Cui L, Yang X et al (2017) Weakening mechanism and tensile fracture behavior of AA 2219-T87 friction plug welds. Mater Sci Eng A 693:129–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hynes NRJ, Velu PS, Nithin AM (2018) Friction push plug welding in airframe structures using Ti-6Al-4V plug. J Brazilian Soc Mech Sci Eng 40(3):158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hynes NRJ, Nagaraj P, Thanga Kumar P (2014) Mathematical modeling of friction plug welding with preheating effect. Adv Mater Res 984-985:600–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hynes NRJ, Nithin AM (2016) Simulation on friction taper plug welding of AA6063-20Gr metal matrix composite. AIP Conference Proceedings 1728(1):020544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zuo QK, Nunes AC Jr (2015) Mechanics model of plug welding. NASA Document Document ID 20150019530Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Institute of Welding 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bo Du
    • 1
  • Xinqi Yang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kaixuan Liu
    • 1
  • Zhuanping Sun
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dongpo Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Tianjin Key Laboratory of Advanced Joining Technology, School of Materials Science and EngineeringTianjin UniversityTianjinPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Tianjin Long March Rocket Manufacture Co., Ltd.TianjinPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations