Interfacial processes during diffusion welding of titanium alloy/aluminium couples under ambient atmosphere

  • M. Kamal KarfoulEmail author
  • Gordon J. Tatlock
Research Paper


In this study, it is reported that the diffusion welding of α-titanium and (α + β) titanium alloys with aluminium has been carried out by applying sufficient compression to the welded samples to give a high level of plastic deformation in the Al layers sandwiched between layers of titanium alloy with a moderate surface finish. Both metals are active in the air; such diffusion processes can take place under vacuum. However, we report, that high-quality welds were achieved at temperatures between 610 and 630 °C under ambient air atmosphere, without the use of vacuum or reducing atmospheres. The resulting microstructures and intermetallic phases were characterised using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and EDX microanalysis. This showed that under the welding parameters selected, Ti diffused across the interface into Al and Al into Ti, since the protective Al2O3 thin film on the surface of aluminium layer has been disrupted due to the Al layer plastic deformation. Impact tests of welds gave relatively high energy impact values.


Diffusion welding Ti alloys Al alloys Microstructures Interface Intermetallics 



The authors thank members of the Materials Science Laboratory at the University of Liverpool for their help and support.


  1. 1.
    Majumdar B, Galun R, Wesheit A, Mordike BL (1997) Formation of crack-free joint between Ti alloy and Al by using a high-power CO2 laser. J Mater Sci 32:6191–6200. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Oliveira JP, Panton B, Zeng Z, Andrei CM, Zhou Y, Miranda RM, Barz Fernandes FM (2016) Laser joining of NiTi to Ti6Al4V using a niobium interlayer. Acta Mater 105:9–15. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    ASM Handbook Vol 3 (1992), Alloy phase diagrams. ASM International, Materials Park, Geauga County, p 25–307Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Enjyo T, Ikeuchi K, Kanai M, Maruyama T (1977) Diffusion welding of alumium to titanium. Osaka University, Transactions of JWRI 6(1):123–130Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Enjyo T, Ikeuchi K, Ando M, Hamada K (1985) Diffusion welding of Al-Cu-Mg series A2017 alloy to titanium. Osaka University, Japan, Transactions of JWRI 14(2):293–297Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Luo J-G, Acoff VL (2000) Interfacial reactions of titanium and aluminum during diffusion welding. Weld J 79(9):239–243-sGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Xu L, Cui YY, Hao YL, Yang R (2006) Growth of intermetallic layer in multi-laminated Ti/Al diffusion couples. J Mater Sci Eng A 435-436:638–647. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wei Y, Wu A, Guisheng Z, Jialie R (2008) Formation process of the bonding joint in Ti/Al diffusion bonding. J Mater Sci Eng A 480(1–2):456–463. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yeh MS, Tseng YH, Chluang TH (1999) Effect of superplastic deformation on diffusion welding of SuperDux 65 stainless steel. Weld J 78(9):301–304-sGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Karfoul MK, Tatlock GJ, Murray RT (2007) The behaviour of Fe and Al at the interface during carbon steel diffusion to aluminium. J Mater Sci 42(14):5692–5699. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bondar AV, Peshkov VV, Kireev LS, Shuroupov VV (1998) Diffuzionnaia Svarka Titana i ego Splavov. Voronezh University, Russia, p 160Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Seith W (1995) Diffusion in Metallen. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 157–180. Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Reed-Hill R (1973) Physical metallurgy principles. In: Van D (ed) Technology & Engineering, 2nd edn. Van Nostrand, New York, p 378–430Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schutze M (1995) Mechanical properties of oxide scales. Oxid Met 44(1–2):29–61. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Evans AG, Crumley GR, Demarey (1983) On the mechanical behaviour of brittle coating and layers. Oxid Met 20(5–6):193–216. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Robertson J, Manning MI (1990) Limits to the adherence of oxide scales. Mater Sci Technol 6(1):81–91. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Benard J (1962) L'Oxidation Des Mataux. Vol.2 (1968) Gauthier Villars, Paris, Russian Translation, Metallurgia, Moscow, pp 312–320Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rosa CJ (1970) Oxygen Diffusion in alpha and beta titanium in the temperature range 932° to 1142°C. Metall Mater Trans B 1(9):2517–2522. Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nakajima H, Masahiro K (1991) Diffusion in titanium. ISIJ International 31(8):757–766.

Copyright information

© International Institute of Welding 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Mechanical & Electrical EngineeringAl-Baath UniversityHomsSyria
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, School of EngineeringThe University of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK

Personalised recommendations