Local quasi-static and cyclic deformation behaviour of brazed AISI 304L/BAu-4 joints characterised by digital image correlation

  • A. SchmiedtEmail author
  • M. Manka
  • W. Tillmann
  • F. Walther
Research Paper


For a reliable design of brazed components, the degradation of mechanical properties due to the corrosive attack by aggressive operating environments has to be considered. In this study, the effect of a condensate corrosion, which is performed according to VDA test sheet 230-214 up to 6 weeks, on the mechanical behaviour of brazed AISI 304L/BAu-4 stainless steel joints is investigated. A time-dependent reduction of the tensile and fatigue strength values down to 42% of the as-received condition is determined. As standard strain measurements are not appropriate to characterise the local strain distributions of heterogeneous material systems, the optical digital image correlation technique is used to evaluate the local quasi-static and cyclic deformation behaviour of the 50 μm wide brazing seam. A novel triggered image acquisition enables measurements in fatigue tests at a frequency of 10 Hz. The reduction of the virtual gauge length from 12.5 down to 0.5 mm leads to an increase of the total strain and ratcheting strain values, which is more pronounced for higher stresses and enhanced for pre-corroded brazed joints. For a microstructure-related analysis of the damage processes, scanning electron microscopy was used.


Brazed joint Condensate corrosion Corrosion fatigue Digital image correlation Local deformation 


Funding information

The authors thank the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) for its financial support within the research project “Novel test systematics for the characterisation of corrosion-fatigue-behaviour of brazing joints” (WA 1672/13-1, TI 343/96-1, WA 1672/13-2).


  1. 1.
    Fernández I, Rosa E, Ibarra Á (2015) Progress on the design of a brazing connector for DEMO in-vessel components. Fusion Eng Des 98:1483–1487. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lugscheider E, Klöhn K, Lison R (1979) Strength of high temperature brazed joints - influence of brazing parameters. 10th International AWS-WRC Brazing Conference, DetroitGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Holländer U, Weber F, Möhwald K, Maier HJ (2015) Determination of failure criteria of mechanically and corrosively loaded brazed joints of sheets made of stainless chromium-nickel steel. Weld Cut 5:280–288Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bobzin K, Tillmann W (2012) Systematic investigation of the properties of brazed joints with application-relevant testing procedures II. Final report IGF 16.558NGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schmiedt A, Manka M, Tillmann W, Walther F (2018) Influence of condensate corrosion on tensile and fatigue properties of brazed stainless steel joints AISI 304L/BNi-2 for automotive exhaust systems. Mater Werkst 49(3):249–263. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Leinenbach C, Koster M, Schindler HJ (2012) Fatigue assessment of defect-free and defect-containing brazed steel joints. J Mater Eng Perform 21(5):739–747. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schindler HJ, Leinenbach C (2012) Mechanics of fatigue crack growth in a bonding interface. Eng Fract Mech 89:52–64. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Koster M, Kenel C, Leinenbach C (2013) Characterization of the fatigue behavior of brazed steel joints by digital image correlation (DIC). 13th International Conference on Fracture, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chen D, Sun S, Dulieu-Barton JM, Li Q, Wang W (2018) Crack growth analysis in welded and non-welded T-joints based on lock-in digital image correlation and thermoelastic stress analysis. Int J Fatigue 110:172–185. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schmiedt A, Jaquet S, Manka M, Tillmann W, Walther F (2018) Tensile and fatigue assessments of brazed stainless steel joints using digital image correlation. Matec Web Conf 165(06003):1–8Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Schmiedt A, Lingnau L, Manka M, Tillmann W, Walther F (2018) Effect of condensate corrosion on tensile and fatigue properties of brazed AISI 304L stainless steel joints using gold-base filler metal. Procedia Structural Integrity, Accepted for publication. Accessed 31 Dec 2018
  12. 12.
    Hahnenberger F, Smaga M, Eifler D (2014) Microstructural investigation of the fatigue behavior and phase transformation in metastable austenitic steels at ambient and lower temperatures. Int J Fatigue 69:36–48. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nebel T, Eifler D (2003) Cyclic deformation behaviour of austenitic steels at ambient and elevated temperatures. Sadhana 28:187–208. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    VDA Test Sheet 230-214 (2010) Resistance of metallic materials to condensate corrosion in exhaust gas-carrying components. In: Verband der AutomobilindustrieGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Colbus J, Zimmermann KF (1974) Properties of gold-nickel alloy brazed joints in high temperature materials. Gold Bull 7(2):42–49. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sarkar A, De PS, Mahato K, Kundu A, Chakraborti PC (2014) Effect of mean stress and solution annealing temperature on ratcheting behaviour of AISI 304 stainless steel. Procedia Eng 74:376–383. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Koster M, Kenel C, Stutz A, Lee WJ, Lis A, Affolter C, Leinenbach C (2013) Fatigue and cyclic deformation behaviour of brazed steel joints. Mater Sci Eng A 581:90–97. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Smaga M, Walther F, Eifler D (2008) Deformation-induced martensitic transformation in metastable austenitic steels. Mater Sci Eng A 483:394–397. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Institute of Welding 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Test EngineeringTU Dortmund UniversityDortmundGermany
  2. 2.Chair of Materials EngineeringTU Dortmund UniversityDortmundGermany

Personalised recommendations