Welding in the World

, Volume 58, Issue 2, pp 217–224 | Cite as

Evaluation of austenite reformation in duplex stainless steel weld metal using computational thermodynamics

Research Paper


This paper provides a theoretical study of austenite reformation during cooling of duplex stainless weld metal using computational thermodynamics and kinetics. Model alloys of the superduplex 2509 weld metal and 2205 base material were used for the study and austenite reformation was calculated at equilibrium conditions and at cooling rates from 0.01 to 2,000 K/s. The calculations also provided the possibility to study the distribution of the alloying elements at ferrite and austenite phase boundaries. The importance of nitrogen for austenite reformation at rapid cooling was studied by comparing with simulations for a low-nitrogen alloy. The results were also compared with experimental and model results from the literature providing good correlation and the unique possibility to study the distribution of alloying elements between the growing austenite and the shrinking ferrite.


Duplex stainless steel Weld metal Austenite Mathematical models Thermodynamics 



This project was financed by the participating companies Outokumpu Stainless AB, AB Sandvik Materials Technology and ESAB AB within the stainless steel member research consortium MRC Stainless at Swerea KIMAB AB. Participating in the original research project were Jan Y. Jonsson and Rachel Pettersson from Outokumpu Stainless AB, the latter now at Jernkontoret; Anders Wilson and Zhiliang Zhou from AB Sandvik Materials Technology; Leif Karlsson, formerly ESAB AB now at University West; Staffan Hertzman from Outokumpu Stainless Research Foundation and Sten Wessman from Swerea KIMAB.


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Copyright information

© International Institute of Welding 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Swerea KIMABKistaSweden
  2. 2.KTH Royal Institute of TechnologyStockholmSweden

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