Advertisement

Ultrafast synthesis and sintering of materials in a single running experiment approach by using electric fields

  • Lílian M. Jesus
  • Ronaldo S. Silva
  • Jean-Claude M’PekoEmail author
Open Access
Research Article
  • 86 Downloads

Abstract

Processing of materials in the form of ceramics normally involves several steps including calcination at a relatively low temperature for synthesis of the end-product powder and sintering at a high temperature for densification. The work we have been developing introduces a novel approach enabling synthesis plus sintering of materials in a single running experiment by using electric fields, ending with dense ceramics that display grains noticeably finer than in conventional processing. This new paradigm is fully illustrated with experiments conducted on amorphous CaCu3Ti4O12 precursor powder, shown to experience, on heating, crystallization through intermediate phases, followed by chemical reaction leading to synthesis of the end-product powder, plus densification depending on field adjustment. The processing time and furnace temperature are considerably reduced, demonstrating that enhanced synthesis and sintering rates applied under field input. Similar results found in Bi2/3Cu3Ti4O12 are also shown. The different factors that may contribute to this unique scenario, including Joule heating, defect generation, and reduction of free energy for nuclei formation promoted by the applied field, are briefly discussed. Overall, the findings we bring here are exclusive as they show an exploitable way that allows rapid processing of materials with good control over particle and grain coarsening.

Keywords

field-assisted processing synthesis sintering microstructure dielectric response 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was partly supported by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior — Brasil (CAPES) — Finance Code 001, through Grant Nos. BEX 3276/14-7 and BEX 9291/13-0. J.-C. M’Peko devised the work. L. M. Jesus and R. S. Silva were responsible for chemical synthesis. L. M. Jesus conducted the field-assisted processing experiments, plus material characterization (XRD, SEM, and dielectric measurements) under J.-C. M’Peko’s supervision. J.-C. M’Peko wrote the first draft of the manuscript, and all present authors participated in manuscript revision, followed by submission approval. L. M. Jesus and J.-C. M’Peko are profoundly grateful to Prof. R. Raj (at CU Boulder, USA) for introduction to flash sintering experiments and for allowing collection of some data presented here. S. K. Jha and J.-M. Lebrun are also thanked for assistance in some of the conducted flash experiments, as well as B. E. Francisco for help with some of the XRD measurements carried out.

Supplementary material

40145_2018_313_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (341 kb)
Ultrafast synthesis and sintering of materials in a single running experiment approach by using electric fields

References

  1. [1]
    Chiang Y-M, Birnie III DP, Kingery WD. Physical Ceramics: Principles for Ceramic Science and Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1997.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Polarz S, Roy A, Lehmann M, et al. Structure-property-function relationships in nanoscale oxide sensors: A case study based on zinc oxide. Adv Funct Mater 2007, 17: 1385–1391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Wang K, Yao F-Z, Jo W, et al. Temperature-insensitive (K,Na)NbO3-based lead-free piezoactuator ceramics. Adv Funct Mater 2013, 23: 4079–4086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    MacAry LS, Kahn ML, Estournès C, et al. Size effect on properties of varistors made from zinc oxide nanoparticles through low temperature spark plasma sintering. Adv Funct Mater 2009, 19: 1775–1783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Chen I-W, Wang X-H. Sintering dense nanocrystalline ceramics without final-stage grain growth. Nature 2000, 404: 168–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Cameron CP, Raj R. Grain-growth transition during sintering of colloidally prepared alumina powder compacts. J Am Ceram Soc 1988, 71: 1031–1035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Zhan G-D, Kuntz JD, Wan JL, et al. Single-wall carbon nanotubes as attractive toughening agents in alumina-based nanocomposites. Nat Mater 2003, 2: 38–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Raj R, Cologna M, Francis JSC. Influence of externally imposed and internally generated electrical fields on grain growth, diffusional creep, sintering and related phenomena in ceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 2011, 94: 1941–1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Lu K. Sintering of nanoceramics. Int Mater Rev 2008, 53: 21–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    He XL, Ye F, Zhang HJ, et al. Study on microstructure and thermal conductivity of spark plasma sintering AlN ceramics. Mater Des 2010, 31: 4110–4115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Nekouee KA, Khosroshahi RA. Preparation and characterization of β-SiAlON/TiN nanocomposites sintered by spark plasma sintering and pressureless sintering. Mater Des 2016, 112: 419–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Samara GA. Pressure and temperature dependences of the dielectric properties of the perovskites BaTiO3 and SrTiO3. Phys Rev 1966, 151: 378–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Malinowski M, Łukaszewicz K, Åsbrink S. The influence of high hydrostatic pressure on lattice parameters of a single crystal of BaTiO3. J Appl Cryst 1986, 19: 7–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Cologna M, Rashkova B, Raj R. Flash sintering of nanograin zirconia in <5 s at 850°C. J Am Ceram Soc 2010, 93: 3556–3559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    M’Peko J-C, Francis JSC, Raj R. Impedance spectroscopy and dielectric properties of flash versus conventionally sintered yttria-doped zirconia electroceramics viewed at the microstructural level. J Am Ceram Soc 2013, 96: 3760–3767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Prette ALG, Cologna M, Sglavo VM, et al. Flash-sintering of Co2MnO4 spinel for solid oxide fuel cell applications. J Power Sources 2011, 196: 2061–2065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Cologna M, Francis JSC, Raj R. Field assisted and flash sintering of alumina and its relationship to conductivity and MgO-doping. J Eur Ceram Soc 2011, 31: 2827–2837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Muccillo R, Muccillo ENS, Kleitz M. Densification and enhancement of the grain boundary conductivity of gadolinium-doped barium cerate by ultra fast flash grain welding. J Eur Ceram Soc 2012, 32: 2311–2316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Hao XM, Liu YJ, Wang ZH, et al. A novel sintering method to obtain fully dense gadolinia doped ceria by applying a direct current. J Power Sources 2012, 210: 86–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    M’Peko J-C, Francis JSC, Raj R. Field-assisted sintering of undoped BaTiO3: Microstructure evolution and dielectric permittivity. J Eur Ceram Soc 2014, 34: 3655–3660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Jha SK, Raj R. The effect of electric field on sintering and electrical conductivity of titania. J Am Ceram Soc 2014, 97: 527–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Jesus LM, Silva RS, Raj R, et al. Electric field-assisted flash sintering of CaCu3Ti4O12: Microstructure characteristics and dielectric properties. J Alloys Compd 2016, 682: 753–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Su X, Bai G, Zhang J, et al. Preparation and flash sintering of MgTiO3 nanopowders obtained by the polyacrylamide gel method. Appl Surf Sci 2018, 442: 12–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Subramanian MA, Li D, Duan N, et al. High dielectric constant in ACu3Ti4O12 and ACu3Ti3FeO12 phases. J Solid State Chem 2000, 151: 323–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Li J, Subramanian MA, Rosenfeld HD, et al. Clues to the giant dielectric constant of CaCu3Ti4O12 in the defect structure of “SrCu3Ti4O12”. Chem Mater 2004, 16: 5223–5225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Sinclair DC, Adams TB, Morrison FD, et al. CaCu3Ti4O12: One-step internal barrier layer capacitor. Appl Phys Lett 2002, 80: 2153–2155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Adams TB, Sinclair DC, West AR. Giant barrier layer capacitance effects in CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics. Adv Mater 2002, 14: 1321–1323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Chung S-Y, Kim I-D, Kang S-JL. Strong nonlinear current-voltage behaviour in perovskite-derivative calcium copper titanate. Nat Mater 2004, 3: 774–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Schmidt R, Stennett MC, Hyatt NC, et al. Effects of sintering temperature on the internal barrier layer capacitor (IBLC) structure in CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics. J Eur Ceram Soc 2012, 32: 3313–3323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Löhnert R, Schmidt R, Töpfer J. Effect of sintering conditions on microstructure and dielectric properties of CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics. J Electroceram 2015, 34: 241–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Pechini MP. U.S. Patent No. 3,330.697. 1967.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Jesus LM, Santos JCA, Sampaio DV, et al. Polymeric synthesis and conventional versus laser sintering of CaCu3Ti4O12 electroceramics: (Micro)structures, phase development and dielectric properties. J Alloys Compd 2016, 654: 482–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    ASTM E1382-97. Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size Using Semiautomatic and Automatic Image Analysis. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 1997.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    García-Sánchez MF, M’Peko J-C, Ruiz-Salvador AR, et al. An elementary picture of dielectric spectroscopy in solids: Physical basis. J Chem Educ 2003, 80: 1062–1073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    Bochu B, Deschizeaux MN, Joubert JC, et al. Synthèse et caractérisation d’une série de titanates pérowskites isotypes de [CaCu3](Mn4)O12. J Solid State Chem 1979, 29: 291–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Jesus LM, Silva RS, Raj R, et al. Electric field-assisted ultrafast synthesis of nanopowders: A novel and cost-efficient approach. RSC Adv 2016, 6: 107208–107213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Liu JJ, Sui YC, Duan C-G, et al. CaCu3Ti4O12: Low-temperature synthesis by pyrolysis of an organic solution. Chem Mater 2006, 18: 3878–3882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    Liu JJ, Smith RW, Mei W-N. Synthesis of the giant dielectric constant material CaCu3Ti4O12 by wet-chemistry methods. Chem Mater 2007, 19: 6020–6024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    Raj R. Joule heating during flash-sintering. J Eur Ceram Soc 2012, 32: 2293–2301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    Todd RI, Zapata-Solvas E, Bonilla RS, et al. Electrical characteristics of flash sintering: Thermal runaway of Joule heating. J Eur Ceram Soc 2015, 35: 1865–1877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    Zhang YY, Jung J-I, Luo J. Thermal runaway, flash sintering and asymmetrical microstructural development of ZnO and ZnO-Bi2O3 under direct currents. Acta Mater 2015, 94: 87–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    Du YX, Stevenson AJ, Vernat D, et al. Estimating Joule heating and ionic conductivity during flash sintering of 8YSZ. J Eur Ceram Soc 2016, 36: 749–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    Charalambous H, Jha SK, Lay RT, et al. Investigation of temperature approximation methods during flash sintering of ZnO. Ceram Int 2018, 44: 6162–6169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. [44]
    Charalambous H, Jha SK, Phuah XL, et al. In situ measurement of temperature and reduction of rutile titania using energy dispersive X-ray diffraction. J Eur Ceram Soc 2018, 38: 5503–5511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    Yu M, Grasso S, McKinnon R, et al. Review of flash sintering: Materials, mechanisms and modelling. Adv Appl Ceram 2017, 116: 24–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [46]
    Gao Y, Liu FZ, Liu DG, et al. Electrical-field induced nonlinear conductive behavior in dense zirconia ceramic. J Mater Sci Technol 2017, 33: 897–900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. [47]
    Liu DG, Cao YJ, Liu JL, et al. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on temperature for onset of flash sintering 3YSZ. J Eur Ceram Soc 2018, 38: 817–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. [48]
    Su XH, Bai G, Jia YJ, et al. Flash sintering of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics: Influence of electrical field and current limit on densification and grain growth. J Eur Ceram Soc 2018, 38: 3489–3497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    Francis JSC, Raj R. Influence of the field and the current limit on flash sintering at isothermal furnace temperatures. J Am Ceram Soc 2013, 96: 2754–2758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. [50]
    Liu W, Liang KM, Zheng YK, et al. The effect of an electric field on the phase separation of glasses. J Phys D: Appl Phys 1997, 30: 3366–3370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. [51]
    Naik KS, Sglavo VM, Raj R. Flash sintering as a nucleation phenomenon and a model thereof. J Eur Ceram Soc 2014, 34: 4063–4067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    Costa SIR, Li M, Frade JR, et al. Modulus spectroscopy of CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics: Clues to the internal barrier layer capacitance mechanism. RSC Adv 2013, 3: 7030–7036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. [53]
    Jesus LM, Barbosa LB, Ardila DR, et al. Effect of conventional and laser sintering on the (micro)structural and dielectric properties of Bi2/3Cu3Ti4O12 synthesized through a polymeric precursor route. J Alloys Compd 2018, 735: 2384–2394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. [54]
    Jesus LM. Conventional, laser and electric field-assisted processing of ACu3Ti4O12 (A = Ca, Bi2/3) electroceramics: (Micro)structure and (di)electrical properties. Ph.D. Thesis. São Carlos Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo (USP), Brazil, 2016.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lílian M. Jesus
    • 1
  • Ronaldo S. Silva
    • 2
  • Jean-Claude M’Peko
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.São Carlos Institute of PhysicsUniversity of São Paulo (USP)São CarlosBrazil
  2. 2.Group of Advanced Ceramic Materials, Department of PhysicsFederal University of Sergipe (UFS)São CristóvãoBrazil

Personalised recommendations