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Immune-Mediated CNS Diseases: a Review

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Purpose of Review

This review of central nervous system (CNS) immune-mediated disorders serves as an overview of multiple neuroinflammatory conditions. Organized by CNS site, it gives the reader up to date information on clinical presentation, diagnostic pitfalls, and treatment considerations for the acute phase of these disorders. Special attention is paid to some of the more rare CNS neuroinflammatory disorders, given the treatment and rehabilitation challenges that they present.

Recent Findings

In-depth discussion about conditions that can mimic idiopathic transverse myelitis is emphasized during this review. Also, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome is included as a discussion point in this review with the most recent literature cited. A general overview of the most current approaches and considerations for multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, and autoimmune encephalitis is discussed.


This review serves as a brief overview of neuroinflammatory conditions most relevant to neurologists and rehabilitation providers who see and manage these patients.

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Papers of particular interest, published recently have been highlighted as: • Of importance

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Correspondence to Allen D. DeSena.

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DeSena, A.D. Immune-Mediated CNS Diseases: a Review. Curr Phys Med Rehabil Rep 5, 134–142 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40141-017-0160-y

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  • Immune-mediated CNS diseases
  • Transverse myelitis
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Neuromyelitis optica
  • Autoimmune encephalitis
  • Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis