Purpose of Review
This review of central nervous system (CNS) immune-mediated disorders serves as an overview of multiple neuroinflammatory conditions. Organized by CNS site, it gives the reader up to date information on clinical presentation, diagnostic pitfalls, and treatment considerations for the acute phase of these disorders. Special attention is paid to some of the more rare CNS neuroinflammatory disorders, given the treatment and rehabilitation challenges that they present.
In-depth discussion about conditions that can mimic idiopathic transverse myelitis is emphasized during this review. Also, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome is included as a discussion point in this review with the most recent literature cited. A general overview of the most current approaches and considerations for multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, and autoimmune encephalitis is discussed.
This review serves as a brief overview of neuroinflammatory conditions most relevant to neurologists and rehabilitation providers who see and manage these patients.
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Papers of particular interest, published recently have been highlighted as: • Of importance
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Catsman-Berrevoets CE, Aarsen FK, van Hemsbergen ML, van Noesel MM, Hakvoort-Cammel FG, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM. Improvement of neurological status and quality of life in children with opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome at long-term follow-up. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009;53(6):1048–53.
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Conflict of Interest
Allen D. DeSena declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
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DeSena, A.D. Immune-Mediated CNS Diseases: a Review. Curr Phys Med Rehabil Rep 5, 134–142 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40141-017-0160-y
- Immune-mediated CNS diseases
- Transverse myelitis
- Multiple sclerosis
- Neuromyelitis optica
- Autoimmune encephalitis
- Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis