Hypoxemia During One-Lung Ventilation: Does it Really Matter?
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Purpose of Review
The human system of oxygen transport and metabolism is complex, and appropriate means to follow its single steps intraoperatively do not exist. Intraoperative tissue hypoxia is one of the leading dangers for patients receiving one-lung ventilation (OLV). Pulmonary, cerebral, or cardiac injuries may be the result. To summarize the current knowledge about the tolerable human limits of hypoxia, inside and outside the thoracic surgery room, is the purpose of this review.
High altitude mountaineers and apnea divers teach us that the healthy human body is able to acclimatize to and cope with severe hypoxemia to prevent fatal tissue hypoxia. The patients receiving OLV for thoracic surgery, however, are lacking adequate time for hypoxic acclimatization. Chronical medical conditions and effects of anesthesia prevent them further from exploiting their full hypoxia defense capacity. Controlled outcome studies on hypoxemia during OLV do not exist.
Patients are no mountaineers. Thus, prevention of tissue hypoxia by avoiding relevant hypoxemia must be still the major goal during OLV. However, if permissive hypoxemia as a protection against perioperative oxygen stress could be tolerable in highly selected patients is the objective of current research.
KeywordsHuman limit of hypoxia Acclimatization Thoracic surgery Thoracic anesthesia Permissive hypoxemia Intraoperative hypoxia
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Ulrich Limper and Burkhard Hartmann declare they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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