Qualitative Neuromuscular Monitoring: Patterns of Stimulation, Site of Monitoring, and Accuracy in Detecting Residual Neuromuscular Blockade
Purpose of Review
Muscle paralysis is a component of many general anesthetics, and monitoring of neuromuscular function is integral to ensuring complete and safe recovery.
Recommendations for qualitative neuromuscular blockade have been well-described in the literature for decades; however practitioners frequently do not follow recommendations, resulting in patient harm from inadequate reversal of paralysis.
This review will focus on evidence-based techniques for patterns of stimulation, sites of monitoring, and accuracy in detecting residual neuromuscular blockade; furthermore, the review will also discuss barriers to implementation of best practices.
KeywordsParalysis Neuromuscular blockade Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor Neostigmine Edrophonium Glycopyrrolate Atropine Residual paralysis Postoperative residual curarization Sugammadex
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Moumen Asbahi and Roy Soto declare they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest have been highlighted as: • Of importance, •• Of outstanding importance
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