Current Pathobiology Reports

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 145–147 | Cite as

The Challenge of Human Pathobiology in Space

  • Russell L. KerschmannEmail author
Invited Commentary
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Effects of the Space Environment on Human Pathobiology

At the time of this writing, more than 550 persons from 37 countries have flown in space, some making the trip as many as seven times [1]. The record for the longest cumulative time off of the Earth belongs to Russian cosmonaut Gennady I. Padalka, a veteran of five expeditions to the Russian Mir space station and the International Space Station who has spent a combined total of 879 days in Earth orbit. The US record for the most time in space is held by recently retired Astronaut Peggy Whitson, with a combined total of 666 days in orbit on board the International Space Station (

Notwithstanding some serious accidents in flight, including many close calls and the tragic loss of life in the space shuttle disasters and on Russian space missions [2], it is evident that the initial phase of human space exploration has been a great success. We now know that humans are physically able to survive for over a year at a time in...


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Russell L. Kerschmann declares that he has no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ascend ClinicalRedwood CityUSA
  2. 2.NASA Engineering and Safety CenterNASA Langley Research CenterHamptonUSA

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