Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulation: An Update on the Latest Evidence

  • Clemens HeiserEmail author
  • Benedikt Hofauer
Sleep Apnea (B Rotenberg, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Sleep Apnea


Purpose of Review

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disease in which narrowing of the upper airway occurs during sleep. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation represents a new therapy option for patients who are noncompliant with standard-treatment continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. This review provides an overview of the latest evidence regarding this technique.

Recent Findings

Various devices have been investigated for hypoglossal nerve stimulation in recent years. A breathing cycle-dependent selective hypoglossal nerve stimulation system has been shown to be effective in clinical routine over many years.


Hypoglossal nerve stimulation is a useful treatment option for patients with OSA who are unable to use their CPAP. It is safe, highly effective and very well accepted by patients.


Obstructive sleep apnea Hypoglossal nerve stimulation Upper airway stimulation Hypoglossal nerve Operative techniques in sleep apnea Neurostimulation 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Clemens Heiser is a consultant for Inspire Medical Systems.

Benedikt Hofauer has received honoraria, travel expenses and research funding from Inspire Medical Systems.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Klinikum Rechts der IsarTechnische Universitat MunchenMunichGermany

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