Reconstructive Ladder for Transoral Resections of Oropharyngeal Cancers

  • Michael J. EliasonEmail author
  • Robert LindauIII
HEAD & NECK: Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer (W Lydiatt, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on HEAD & NECK: Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer
  2. Topical Collection on HEAD & NECK: Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer


Purpose of Review

Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) now offers extended reach and capability to the head and neck oncologic surgeon, but in doing so, provides a reconstructive dilemma. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss the most recent advances and options available after resection with TORS.

Recent Findings

The latest research provides a common framework for surgeons to classify the type of oropharyngeal defect. A variety of reconstructive options described include secondary intent, modifications to existing local and regional flaps, and advances utilizing robotic assistance in free flap reconstruction.


There exists a multitude of reconstructive options with appropriate considerations for a stepwise approach based on patient-specific factors, surgeon capability, and the extent of the oropharyngeal defect. Just as robotic resection extends the capability in extirpation, it is now being used to refine free flap inset in the appropriate case.


Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) Oropharyngeal reconstruction Head and neck cancer Free flap reconstruction Reconstructive ladder Regional flap reconstruction 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OtolaryngologyNaval Medical Center PortsmouthPortsmouthUSA
  2. 2.Department of Head and Neck Surgical Oncology, Estabrook Cancer CenterNebraska Methodist HospitalOmahaUSA

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