Diagnosis and Management of CMV Endotheliitis

  • Ashish Kumar
  • Jodhbir Singh MehtaEmail author
Ocular Microbiology and Immunology (B Jeng and L Schocket, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Ocular Microbiology and Immunology


Purpose of Review

The purpose of this review is to elucidate the recent developments in the diagnostic armamentarium and the treatment strategy of CMV endotheliitis.

Recent Findings

CMV endotheliitis is now increasingly recognized entity especially in the Asian population. The exact pathogenesis is still unknown but many risk factors have been identified. A strong suspicion based on clinical features with the use of modern diagnostic tools like PCR and high resolution imaging modalities can lead to early confirmation of the disease. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment at the initial stage are crucial to avoid the sequelae.


Apart from the typical clinical features, any patient presenting with KPs, raised IOP with mild AC reaction especially following corneal transplant, diagnosis of CMV endotheliitis should be considered. CMV endotheliitis can mimic graft rejection. PCR can help confirm but clinical acumen still remains the mainstay tool for diagnosis. Oral valganciclovir is the definitive treatment till date but recurrences are common. Future studies to find the appropriate dosage, duration, and the route of ganciclovir administration for prophylaxis are needed.


Cytomegalovirus Endotheliitis Valganciclovir Graft rejection Anterior uveitis PCR 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Human and Animal Rights

All reported studies/experiments with human or animal subjects performed by the authors have been previously published and complied with all applicable ethical standards (including the Helsinki declaration and its amendments, institutional/national research committee standards, and international/national/institutional guidelines).


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Singapore National Eye CentreSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Aravind Eye Care SystemMaduraiIndia
  3. 3.Tissue Engineering and Stem Cell GroupSingapore Eye Research InstituteSingaporeSingapore
  4. 4.Eye-ACPDuke-NUS Graduate Medical SchoolSingaporeSingapore
  5. 5.Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of MedicineNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  6. 6.School of Material Science and EngineeringNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

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