Current Ophthalmology Reports

, Volume 6, Issue 4, pp 233–236 | Cite as

Mastering Lens Calculations: New Formulas and Comparisons

  • Aazim A. Siddiqui
  • Uday DevganEmail author
Cataract (CE Starr and A Brissette, Section Editors)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Cataract


Purpose of Review

To provide a glimpse into some of the newer methods of performing IOL calculations and recent literature on which formulas and calculation strategies have been recommended for a certain subset of eyes.

Recent Findings

A literature review was performed to investigate all the relevant, recently published studies on the progress, comparisons, and recent advancements of IOL calculations. Based on this review, the appropriate history, evolution, progress, limitation, and recent advancements are analyzed and explained. A plethora of IOL formulas and calculation strategies have been developed to help surgeons achieve the most desired post-operative outcome for their patients.


Modern IOL formulas, calculation strategies, and biometric devices perform well for average eyes; however, they remain less optimal for eyes with atypical biometric parameters. There is no single solution that has been deemed as the perfect formula which can simplify the process and consistently provide accurate results for all types of eyes. Over the years, a number of different formula optimization strategies have been devised for traditional IOL formulas and newer, more sophisticated IOL formulas with advanced mathematical algorithms have been developed. By addition of new input parameters and use of complex mathematics to better estimate post-operative lens position, these solutions may minimize refractive error. These methods may provide increasing improvement in both typical and atypical eyes in the years to come.


Cataract Cataract surgery IOL IOL formula IOL calculations Intraocular lens Intraocular lens formula Intraocular lens calculations 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Uday Devgan reports other from Advanced Euclidean Solutions outside the submitted work. In addition, Dr. Devgan has a patent Advanced Euclidean Solutions pending. Aazim A. Siddiqui declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Montefiore Medical CenterAlbert Einstein College of MedicineNew York CityUSA
  2. 2.Devgan Eye Surgery, Olive View UCLA Medical Center, Jules Stein Eye InstituteUCLA School of MedicineLos AngelesUSA

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