Ultrasound Screening and Surveillance in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
To review the current state of the use of ultrasound in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance.
Despite limitations in the evidence supporting the use of ultrasound in HCC surveillance, it has been formally recommended by a number of guidelines based on the best available evidence showing that it improves survival and is cost effective. However, ultrasound surveillance is inconsistently adopted and is prone to a number of practical and technical challenges. The recent introduction of ultrasound LI-RADS aims to standardize performance and reporting of these surveillance studies.
Despite remaining a controversial topic, semi-annual ultrasound screening for HCC is still supported by multiple hepatology societies. Ongoing evaluation of its performance and cost-effectiveness is required as new standards such as US LI-RADS, as well as evolving therapies and technologies emerge.
KeywordsHepatocellular carcinoma Surveillance Screening Ultrasound Liver cancer Cost-effectiveness LI-RADS
Compliance with Ethical Guidelines
Conflict of interest
Emily H. T. Pang reports honorarium received from Bayer for consulting. Alison C. Harris declares no potential conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Recently published papers of particular interest have been highlighted as: • Of importance
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