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Design Specifications for Diaphragm Wall: State of the Art

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Abstract

Recent upsurge in infrastructural development and expansion in urban area necessitates productive utilisation of underground space. To address this, it is appropriate to adopt diaphragm wall retaining structures. The design and construction of diaphragm walls require greater care and expertise. Unsatisfactory implementation of such structures will adversely affect the performance and cost-effectiveness of entire project. Not many standards are available at present that regulate the specific requirements of diaphragm walls. The existing standards refer to structural codes for reinforcement calculations. Hence, comparison of these standards and comprehensive study on the specifications applicable to diaphragm walls are necessary. In this research, different structural design codes are evaluated for their applications specific for diaphragm walls. The standards considered for the analysis and design of diaphragm walls include EN 1997-1, AS 4678, BS 8002, BS 8004, Canadian foundation engineering manual, IS 9556, ACI 318, AS 3600, BS 8110, BS EN 1538, CSA A23.3, EN 1992-1-1 and IS 456. These codes differ on design equations, safety factors, reinforcement ratios, moment capacity, etc., resulting in varied design loads and reinforcements. Comparisons and discussions are made based on calculated reinforcements to conclude that even though the concepts and methodologies are similar, there are major variations in design outcome. As both structural and geotechnical considerations are to be met for deep embedded structures, specifications more than those provided in structural codes should be counted. Based on the research, it is recommended to develop specific analysis and design procedures considering all the requirements of diaphragm walls.

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Correspondence to Anu James.

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James, A., Kurian, B. Design Specifications for Diaphragm Wall: State of the Art. Indian Geotech J (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40098-020-00415-5

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Keywords

  • Deep excavation
  • Embedded structures
  • Diaphragm wall
  • Codes of practice
  • Safety coefficients