Antibacterial activity of LaNiO3 prepared by sonicated sol-gel method using combination fuel
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Sonicated sol-gel method was used to prepare LaNiO3 from lanthanum nitrate hexahydrate La(NO3)3.6H2O(LN), nickel nitrate Ni(NO3)3.6H2O(NN), glycine and urea. Nanocrystalline LaNiO3 powder was formed after heating at 175 °C in 5 min. Particle size of LaNiO3 nanopowder was determined by Debay Scherrer’s equation and was found 48 nm. Prepared nanocatalyst characterized with the help of XRD, TGA, SEM, IR, BET surface area, EDX. Surface area of LaNiO3 was 9.22 m2/g. We have reported first time good antibacterial activity of LaNiO3 for Staphylococcus aureus. Zone of inhibition for LaNiO3 was 13 mm studied with the help of agar cup method.
KeywordsSonicated sol-gel method LaNiO3 EDX XRD SEM Surface area Antibacterial activity of LaNiO3
Over the past few years different nanosized metal oxides are used as antibacterial agents. Metal oxides show antimicrobial activity without causing toxic effect on mammalian cell. Different metal oxides are used as antimicrobial agents. Nanosized HgO antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli  silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) inhibits growth of bacteria and shows wound-healing properties . Different metal oxides show antibacterial activity effectively against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria. We had studied antibacterial activity of rhombohedral LaNiO3 against different bacteria and fungi like E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilus and Candida albicans. S. aureus is a gram positive bacteria that cause different types of infections.
Nanomaterials are today’s important scientific concern due to their unique properties and possible application. Mostly ABO3 is general formula for mixed metal oxide with rhombohedral type structure where ‘A’ is rare earth alkaline and alkali metal ion that fit into dodecahedral site of frame work and B is 3d, 4d transitional metal ion with octahedral site [7, 8].
Recently various mixed rhombohedral metal oxide nanomaterials have been reported  with improved catalytic activity and possibility of use in fuel cells . Various methods like sol-gel , co-precipitation , liquid mix technique , decomposition of mixed oxalate , nitrates or arbonates,  metalo organic metalo-inorganic precursors are used to prepare LaNiO3.
Sol-gel method is simple process for production of advance material using heat energy by exothermic reaction. Large quantity of mixed metal oxides synthesized by sol-gel method, because of its simple way, short time, low cost and use of simple equipments. Problem of rapid catalytic deactivation is overcome by rhombohedral material due to its well-defined structure which produces highly dispersed metallic particles to promote high activity suppresses coke formation and enhance catalytic stability. [16, 17, 18, 19, 20] Mixed metal oxide nanoparticles used for purification of volatile organic compound (Vocs), total combustion of hydrocarbon for energetic conversion, conducting polymers nanocomposites , reduction of NOx and automotive emission, photocatalytic degradation of different dyes . Presently various methods are used to synthesis mixed metal oxide like lanthanum nickel oxide due to it’s vast application in different fields [23, 24, 25].
In present work LaNiO3 was prepared using sonicated sol-gel method in short time, low temperature and relatively simple way using simple equipments and investigation of structural properties and testing catalytic activity of LaNiO3 nanopowder. We have observed antibacterial activity of rhombohedral LaNiO3. Formed mixed metal oxide shows good antibacterial activity for S. aureus. First time we are going to report antibacterial activity of LaNiO3 nanopowder.
Materials and methods
Results and discussion
XRD of LaNiO3
Different combinations of lanthanum nitrate, nickel nitrate, glycine and urea in proportion to 1:1:1.5:1, 1:1:1.5:1.5, 1:1:1.5:2 were studied. We obtained good result for 1:1:1.5:1.5 ratio of lanthanum nitrate hexahydrate La(NO3)3.6H2O(LN), nickel nitrate Ni(NO3)3.6H2O(NN), glycine and urea. Different scientist prepared LaNiO3, they subject sample for annealing. We had prepared LaNiO3 by sonicated sol-gel method which did not required calcination. We have saved that energy which required for calcination, this showed green approach.
SEM image Of LaNiO3
To study morphology of formed oxide, scanning electron microscopy technique was used which reveled morphology and porous nature with particle size 45.33 nm.
BET surface area of LaNiO3
Comparative study of surface area of LaNiO3
Percentage composition of element
From this study it is clear that large surface area is available for any chemical transformation, therefore LaNiO3 will show good catalytic activity. Sonicated sol-gel method provides high surface area metal oxide without calcination process. We have saved that energy used for calcination which reveals green approach. Sonication process shows creation of vaccume and small bubble which form homogeneous mixing of solution. Because of Sonication process change in physical as well as chemical properties of oxide takes place. Hydroxide soles shows critical nucleation process. Growth of particle size starts, after nucleation. Size of metal oxide regulated using sonication. Sonication barriers formation of aggregation of particles. Sonication involves breakage of intermolecular interactions and speed up dissolution. Use of mixed fuels like glycine and urea helps in vigorous combustion and produces nanoparticles.
TG/TGA of LaNiO3
TG curve show formed oxide is very stable up to 900 °C as in Fig. 5.
TGA is recorded in nitrogen gas by using Perkin and Elmer’s STA 6000 is shown in Fig. 6. This weight loss and weight gain can be ignorable. This indicated that prepared powder was stable from bigining TGA curve show there is weight loss between 210 °C to 740 °C about 11.21 % which due to loss of moisture, CO2 and nitrogen, hydrogen gas.
EDX of LaNiO3
To study EDX of LaNiO3 ELITE PLUS model is used. To study percentage composition of formed oxide, EDX was studied which show percentage of oxygen is 86.17 %, percentage of lanthanum is 8.88 %, percentage of nickel is 4.95 % as shown in Fig. 7.
Antibacterial activity of LaNiO3
Use of mixed metal oxides as antibacterial agent has attracted scientist because of their reliable antimicrobial activity effective at low concentration. High surface area and small particle size of mixed metal oxides allows broad range of reaction with bacterial surface . Metal oxides shows antibacterial activity against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria, as they are harmless to mammalian cells and environment also. Nanoparticles are found to be cytotoxic. As cytotoxic effect was size dependant, smaller particle size shows greater efficiency in inhibiting bacterial growth. Biofilm is community of bacteria implanted in self produced extracellular matrix of proteins, polysaccharides along with DNA. Infections which involve biofilm formation are chronic and cause serious damage to human beings. Hence it is major challenge to find alternative therapeutic way to overcome increasing resistance of bacteria to currently used common antibiotics. Use of nanoparticles is found to be showing promising, good antibacterial activity. Although exact bactericidal mechanism of nanoparticles are still being investigated, different nanoparticles are found to be showing striking antimicrobial effects. Bacterial species shows selectivity for particular nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles shows antibacterial activity efficiently than copper nanoparticles aganist E. coli and S. aureus, while B. subtilis shows more susceptibility to copper nanoparticles than silver nanoparticles . Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide shows greater antibacterial activity against E. coli than S. typhimurium. Sensitivity and selectivity of bacteria to nanoparticles is related with species. Vancomycin-resistant bacteria like Enterococci found to develop additional outer membrane which covers cellular surface and provide protection to bacteria from vancomycin. Therefore vancomycin capped gold nanoparticles penetrate outer cell membrane, that allows vancomycin to ingress cellular surface . Size of nanoparticles plays important role in it’s toxicity. Scientist studied effect of particle size on antibacterial efficiency. Hayden et al shows 2 nm gold nanoparticles are more toxic to B. subtilis than 6 nm gold nanoparticles . Different types of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles like oxides of copper, silver, zinc, magnesium, gold, calcium shows antibacterial effect against wide varieties of various gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria . Antibacterial activity of metal oxides are found to be effective against gram-negative bacteria E. coli and P. aeruginosa and gram-positive S. aureus and B. subtilis [38, 39, 40, 41]. (Fig. 8)
Results and discussion
Though exact mechanism of antibacterial activity of rhombohedral LaNiO3 nanocatalyst was not known, it was belived that rhombohedral LaNiO3 catalyst shows antibacterial activity through ion diffusion. We here going to report antibacterial activity of rhombohedral LaNiO3 for S. aureus with good results.
Antibacterial activity of LaNiO3
Cytotoxicity of LaNiO3
Toxicity of LaNiO3
Total shrimps taken for study
Number of shrimps survived
Number of shrimps dead
Percentage of death inhibition (%)
LaNiO3 nanocatalyst was prepared by using sonicated sol-gel method. The precursors used in this method were lanthanum nitrate hexahydrate La(NO3)3.6H2O(LN), nickel nitrate Ni(NO3)3.6H2O(NN), glycine and urea as combination fuel. Sonication was carried out at 5 Hz for 10 min. After autocombution at 175 °C LaNiO3 was formed. Formed nanomaterial was characterized with the help of XRD, TGA, SEM, IR, BET surface area, EDX. Particle size of LaMnO3 was determined by Debay Scherrer’s equation and was found to be 48 nm. Surface area of nanomaterial was 9.22 m2/g, which was high as compared to other researchers. LaNiO3 nanocatalyst was used to study antibacterial activity. We have reported first time good antibacterial activity of LaNiO3 for S. aureus. Zone of inhibition for S. aureus of LaNiO3 was 13 mm which was studied with the help of agar cup method.
We have successfully prepared rhombohedral LaNiO3 catalyst by sonicated sol-gel method in short time with good surface area, using simple equipments in good yield and reactivity. Prepared LaNiO3 nanocatalyst characterized by XRD, SEM, TG, BET, EDX which shows formed oxide was rhombohedral with size 45.33 nm. Surface area of LaNiO3 was 9.22 m2/g .We have reported first time antibacterial activity of LaNiO3 against S. aureus in good extent.
We are thankful to National Chemical Laboratory, Pune; Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Shivaji University Kolhapur; S.P.Consultant Mumbai, Department of Chemistry, Dahiwadi College Dahiwadi for valuable assistance in data collection. I am also thankful to Pavan Dongapure for their guidance.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
We have no Conflict of interest
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