Application of Natural Dyes on Protein Fibres Following Pad–Steam Methods

  • Sankar Roy MaulikEmail author
Original Contribution


An aqueous extract of different vegetable colourants, viz. Punica granatum, Camellia sinensis and Rheum emodi, can be used for dyeing of wool and silk fabrics following a pad–steam process in the absence and presence of magnesium sulphate, aluminium sulphate and ferrous sulphate. Among different mordanting methods, a simultaneous application of salt produces most balanced improvements in terms of dye receptivity and colour fastness properties assessed in terms of washing and light of the dyed substrates. Among the mordanting agents used, aluminium sulphate and ferrous sulphate are found to be superior as compared to magnesium sulphate.


Camellia sinensis Mordant Padding Punica granatum Rheum emodi Silk Wool 



  1. 1.
    N. Banerjee, O.P. Kotnala, S.R. Maulik, Indian J. Tradit. Knowl. 17(2), 396–399 (2018)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    S.R. Maulik, K. Bhandari, Int. J. Emerg. Technol. Adv. Eng. 8(2), 261–266 (2018)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S.R. Maulik, J. Text. Assoc. 75(5), 345–350 (2015)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S.R. Maulik, K. Agarwal, Indian J. Tradit. Knowl. 13(3), 589–595 (2014)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    D. Das, S. Raymaulik, S.C. Bhattacharya, Indian J. Fibre Text. Res. 32(3), 366–372 (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    H.D. Sinnur, A.K. Samanta, D.K. Verma, R. Kaware, J. Inst. Eng. India Ser. E 99(1), 9–26 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. Majumdar, S.R. Maulik, Asian Dyer 10(4), 45–47 (2013)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S.R. Maulik, K. Bhandari, Asian Dyer 9(5), 41–47 (2012)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    S.R. Maulik, J. Inst. Eng. India Ser. E 99(2), 157–161 (2018)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Ray Maulik, L. Bhowmik, Man Made Text India 49(1), 23–29 (2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. Das, S.C. Bhattacharya, S. Ray Maulik, Indian J. Fibre Text. Res. 31(4), 559–564 (2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. Das, S.C. Bhattacharya, S. Ray Maulik, Int. J. Tea Sci 4(3 and 4), 17–25 (2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. Das, S. Ray Maulik, S.C. Bhattacharya, Indian J. Fibre Text. Res. 33(2), 163–170 (2008)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. Ray Maulik, S.C. Pradhan, Colourage 52(9), 67–71 (2005)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    H.T. Deo, B.K. Desai, J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 115, 224–227 (1999)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.D. Teli, R.V. Adivarekar, P.D. Pardeshi, Colourage 69(10), 23–28 (2002)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M.L. Gulrajani, D.B. Gupta, V. Agarwal, M. Jain, Indian Text. J. 102(10), 78–83 (1992)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Scion, Biosynthesis of precursors for liquor and flavour characteristics in black tea, in Global Advances in Tea Science, ed. by N.K. Jain (Aravali Books International (P) Ltd, New Delhi, 1999), pp. 723–725Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M.L. Gulrajani, D.B. Gupta, V. Agarwal, M. Jain, Indian Text. J. 102(3), 76–83 (1992)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    S.R. Maulik, Asian Dyer 12(1), 29–32 (2015)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    F.W. Billmeyer, M. Saltzman, Principles of Color Technology, 2nd edn. (A Willey Interscience Publication, New York, 1981), 140Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J.D. Lee, Concise Inorganic Chemistry, 5th edn. (Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, 1996)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    D. Gupta, Colourage 46(8), 41–46 (1999)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J.B. Cadwell, N.A. Evans, D.J. Gale, I.W. Stapleton, J.F.K. Wilshire, J. Soc. Dyers Colour. 89(3), 94 (1973)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    N.S. Allen, Rev. Prog. Col 17, 61–71 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    D. Gupta, Fastness properties of dyed textiles: natural dyes and their application to textiles. In: M. L. Gulrajani, D. B. Gupta (eds) (Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, 1992), pp. 99–110Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Oakes, Rev. Prog. Col. 31, 21–28 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. Oakes, S. Dixon, Rev. Prog. Col. 34, 110 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Institution of Engineers (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Silpa-SadanaVisva-Bharati (A Central University)SriniketanIndia

Personalised recommendations