Functionalization, Uptake and Release Studies of Active Molecules Using Halloysite Nanocontainers

  • Shailesh Adinath Ghodke
  • Shirish Hari SonawaneEmail author
  • Bharat Apparao Bhanvase
  • Satyendra Mishra
  • Kalpana Shrikant Joshi
  • Irina Potoroko
Original Contribution


Halloysite nanotubes are inorganic clay minerals of kaolin group. Halloysite possess unique morphology, chemical composition, cation exchange capacity and charge properties making them ideal candidate for various industrial application. In the present study, an attempt was made to functionalize the exterior surface of halloysite nanocontainer. The surface of halloysite nanocontainer was modified using tetrabutylammonium chloride (TBAC). Further an attempt was made to employ these functionalized nanocontainers to uptake and release the active molecule (dye Acid Red1). TBAC-modified nanocontainer indicated higher adsorption capacity of 4.54 mg/g as compared to unmodified nanocontainer (3.08 mg/g). The release behaviour of active molecule from loaded nanocontainers was found with change in pH and temperature. Since the loading characteristics of functionalized nanocontainers were found to be adsorption dependent, parameters such as effect of time, loading, pH, initial concentration were studied for analysing the loading characteristics. The dye release from 0.5 g dye-loaded TBAC-modified nanocontainers at pH 11 and at 32 °C was found to be 92%. Lastly, the release readings were analysed for the best fit (97%) using permeation kinetic model (Peppa’s model).


Halloysite Nanocontainers Fuctionalization Controlled release Active molecule 



Acid Red 1 (dye)


Acetic acid


Sodium acetate


Deionized water


Hydrochloric acid


Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide


Halloysite nanotubes


Disodium hydrogen phosphate


Sodium chloride


Monosodium phosphate


Tetrabutylammonium chloride



Initial solution concentration in ppm


Solution concentration at equilibrium in ppm


Equilibrium concentration of the dye in the solution in (mg/L)


Rate constant of pseudo-first-order adsorption (min−1)


Rate constant of pseudo-second-order adsorption (g mg−1 min−1)

Kf and n

Physical constants of the Freundlich adsorption isotherm


Release rate constant


Mass of nanocontainers in g


Release exponent indicating transport mechanism


Amount of dye release in the solution at time t = 0


Amount of adsorbed dye on the adsorbent surface in (mg/g) at equilibrium


Amount of dye release in the solution at time t


Maximum adsorption capacity (mg/g)


Amount of dye release in given time


Volume of solution in litre


Signifies the constant related to the energy of adsorption



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Copyright information

© The Institution of Engineers (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shailesh Adinath Ghodke
    • 1
  • Shirish Hari Sonawane
    • 2
    Email author
  • Bharat Apparao Bhanvase
    • 3
  • Satyendra Mishra
    • 1
  • Kalpana Shrikant Joshi
    • 4
  • Irina Potoroko
    • 5
  1. 1.University Institute of Chemical TechnologyNorth Maharashtra UniversityJalgaonIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringNational Institute of TechnologyWarangalIndia
  3. 3.Department of Chemical Engineering, Laxminarayan Institute of TechnologyRashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur UniversityNagpurIndia
  4. 4.Department of BiotechnologySinhgad College of EngineeringPuneIndia
  5. 5.Department of Food and BiotechnologyFGAOU VO “South Ural State University” (NIU)ChelyabinskRussia

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