Advertisement

Development and Characterization of Peanut Shell Flour–Polypropylene Composite

  • Arobindo ChatterjeeEmail author
  • Harwinder Singh
Original Contribution
  • 22 Downloads

Abstract

In this socioeconomic era, natural fillers are continuously being identified and investigated for the development of cost-effective, sustainable composites. Current work explores the potential of peanut shell flour (PNSF) as filler in polypropylene (PP) matrix. Five levels of filler loading of PNSF (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50) by weight percentage (wt%) are taken at two levels of maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP) coupling agent at 2% and 4% by weight. There is a decrease in the tensile, flexural and impact strength of the composites at all levels of filler loadings compared to unfilled and incompatible composites, while flexural modulus is increased by 243% at 50 wt% filler loading and 4 wt% MAPP. Storage modulus of the composite is increased by 35.2% compared to neat PP while reduced by 65% for incompatible composites. Overall, there is improvement in all the mechanical properties with incorporation of MAPP, and the best results are obtained at 4 wt% of MAPP. SEM shows good interphase between filler and matrix and relatively less voids with addition of coupling agent up to 30 wt% filler loading. Moisture absorption of the composites is restricted to 0.3% with addition of coupling agent even at maximum PNSF loading which indicates the utility of composites for outdoor applications.

Keywords

Peanut shell flour MAPP Lignocellulose composites Injection molding SEM DMA 

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    M. Enoki, Recent development of fiber reinforced composite materials. Materia Japan. 37(4), 225–225 (1998).  https://doi.org/10.2320/materia.37 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. Balakrishnan, M.J. John, L. Pothen et al., 12—Natural Fibre and Polymer Matrix Composites and their Applications in Aerospace Engineering (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2016)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    P.V. Joseph, K. Joseph, S. Thomas, Effect of processing variables on the mechanical properties of sisal-fiber-reinforced polypropylene composites. Compos. Sci. Technol. 59, 1625–1640 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    N.M. Stark, Effects of wood fiber characteristics on mechanical properties of wood/polypropylene composites. Wood Fiber Sci. 35, 167–174 (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A.K. Bledzki, A.A. Mamun, J. Volk, Physical, chemical and surface properties of wheat husk, rye husk and soft wood and their polypropylene composites. Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 41, 480–488 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2009.12.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    N.J. Chitra, R. Vasanthakumari, Studies on polypropylene bio-composites with corn-husk waste. Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res. 3, 24–27 (2012)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Razavi-nouri, F. Jafarzadeh-dogouri, A. Oromiehie, A.E. Langroudi, Mechanical properties and water absorption behaviour of chopped rice husk filled polypropylene composites. Iran. Polym. J. 15, 757–766 (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S.M.L. Rosa, N. Rehman, D.M. Pimentel et al., Cellulose and nanocellulose from maize straw: an insight on the crystal properties. J. Polym. Environ. 22, 252–259 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10924-013-0624-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    H.S. Yang, H.J. Kim, H.J. Park et al., Effect of compatibilizing agents on rice-husk flour reinforced polypropylene composites. Compos. Struct. 77, 45–55 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2005.06.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.P. Jose, S.K. Malhotra, S. Thomas et al., Part One Introduction to Polymer Composites Advances in Polymer Composites: Macro- and Microcomposites—State of the Art, New Challenges, and Opportunities, vol. 1, Chapt 1 (Wiley, Weinheim, 2012), pp 3–16Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. Ismail, M.R. Edyham, B. Wirjosentono, Bamboo fibre filled natural rubber composites: the effects of filler loading and bonding agent. Polym. Test. (2002).  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0142-9418(01)00060-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Idicula, S.K. Malhotra, K. Joseph, S. Thomas, Dynamic mechanical analysis of randomly oriented intimately mixed short banana/sisal hybrid fibre reinforced polyester composites. Compos. Sci. Technol. 65, 1077–1087 (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2004.10.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. George, M.S. Sreekala, S. Thomas et al., A review on interface modification and characterization of natural fiber reinforced plastic composites. Polym. Eng. Sci. 41, 1471–1485 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    G.U. Raju, S. Kumarappa, V.N. Gaitonde, Mechanical and physical characterization of agricultural waste reinforced polymer composites. J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 3, 907–916 (2012)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    C. Albano, M. Ichazo, J. Gonzlez et al., Effects of filler treatments on the mechanical and morphological behavior of PP+ wood flour and PP+ sisal fiber. Mater. Res. Innov. 4, 284–293 (2001).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s100190000108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    N.M. Stark, F. Service, R.E. Rowlands, Effects of wood fiber charachteristics on mechanical properties of wood/polypropylene composites. Wood Fiber Sci. 2005, 167–174 (2005)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M.S. Sreekala, M.G. Kumaran, S. Joseph et al., Oil palm fibre reinforced phenol formaldehyde composites: influence of fibre surface modifications on the mechanical performance. Appl. Compos. Mater. 7, 295–329 (2000).  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026534006291 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. Malkapuram, V. Kumar, Y. Singh Negi, Recent development in natural fiber reinforced polypropylene composites. J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 28, 1169–1189 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1177/0731684407087759 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    H.J. Kwon, J. Sunthornvarabhas, J.W. Park et al., Tensile properties of kenaf fiber and corn husk flour reinforced poly(lactic acid) hybrid bio-composites: role of aspect ratio of natural fibers. Compos. Part B Eng. 56, 232–237 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2013.08.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    N. Muralidhar, V. Kaliveeran, V. Arumugam, I. Srinivasula Reddy, A study on areca nut husk fibre extraction, composite panel preparation and mechanical characteristics of the composites. J. Inst. Eng. Ser. D (2019).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40033-019-00186-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    S.C. Amico, J.T.W. Jappes, X.Z. Gao et al., Fibre loading effects on dynamic mechanical properties of compression moulded luffa fibre polyester composites. Int. J. Comput. Aided Eng. Technol. 10, 157 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1504/ijcaet.2018.10009690 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. Jose, J. Joy, L. Mathew et al., Nanofibril reinforced unsaturated polyester nanocomposites: morphology, mechanical and barrier properties, viscoelastic behavior and polymer chain confinement. Ind. Crop Prod. 56, 246–254 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.03.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    P. Balakrishnan, S. Gopi, V.G. Geethamma et al., Cellulose nanofiber vs nanocrystals from pineapple leaf fiber: a comparative studies on reinforcing efficiency on starch nanocomposites. Macromol. Symp. 380, 1–7 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1002/masy.201800102 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. Chouhan, A.K. Bajpai, R. Bhatt, Nano-structures & nano-objects analysis of topographical parameters and interfacial interaction of zinc oxide reinforced poly (vinyl alcohol-g-acrylonitrile) nanocomposite film surfaces using atomic force microscopy. Nano Struct. Nano Objects 18, 100308 (2019).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoso.2019.100308 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    D. Shanmugam, M. Thiruchitrambalam, Static and dynamic mechanical properties of alkali treated unidirectional continuous Palmyra palm leaf stalk fiber/jute fiber reinforced hybrid polyester composites. Mater. Des. 50, 533–542 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2013.03.048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J.P. Jose, S. Thomas, Alumina–clay nanoscale hybrid filler assembling in cross-linked polyethylene based nanocomposites: mechanics and thermal properties. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16, 14730–14740 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1039/c4cp01532k CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Institution of Engineers (India) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Textile TechnologyDr. B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology JalandharJalandharIndia

Personalised recommendations