Advertisement

Experimental Studies on Strength Behaviour of Notched Glass/Epoxy Laminated Composites under Uni-axial and Bi-axial Loading

  • V. L. Jagannatha GupthaEmail author
  • Ramesh S. Sharma
Original Contribution
  • 46 Downloads

Abstract

The use of FRP composite materials in aerospace, aviation, marine, automotive and civil engineering industry has increased rapidly in recent years due to their high specific strength and stiffness properties. The structural members contrived from such composite materials are generally subjected to complex loading conditions and leads to multi-axial stress conditions at critical surface localities. Presence of notches, much required for joining process of composites, makes it further significant. The current practice of using uni-axial test data alone to validate proposed material models is inadequate leading to evaluation and consideration of bi-axial test data. In order to correlate the bi-axial strengths with the uni-axial strengths of GFRP composite laminates in the presence of a circular notch, bi-axial tests using four servo-hydraulic actuators with four load cells were carried out. To determine the in-plane strength parameters, bi-axial cruciform test specimen model was considered. Three different fibre orientations, namely, 0°, 45°, and 90° are considered with a central circular notch of 10 mm diameter in the present investigation. From the results obtained, it is observed that there is a reduction in strength of 5.36, 2.41 and 13.92% in 0°, 45°, and 90° fibre orientation, respectively, under bi-axial loading condition as compared to that of uni-axial loading in laminated composite.

Keywords

GFRP Cruciform specimen Bi-axial loading Notches Fiber orientation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors thankfully acknowledge Structures Panel, AR&DB, New Delhi, India for the financial support granted under the project DARO/08/1051691/M/I to carry out the present work. The authors also thank the Management, Principal, Head of the Department, Mechanical Engineering Department, R V College of Engineering, Bangalore, India for their support and encouragement extended during this work.

References

  1. 1.
    M. Madhavi, R. Venkat, Fiber reinforced polymer composite materials with their higher specific strength, moduli and tailorability characteristics will result in reduction of weight of the structure. J. Inst. Eng. (India) Ser. C 95(1), 41–50 (2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Z Hasan, F Darwish, S Al-Absi, Failure stress analysis of fiber reinforced of composite laminates under uniaxial/biaxial loading, in Excerpt from the Proceedings of the COMSOL Conference 2010, BostonGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. Olsson, A survey of test methods for multiaxial and out-of-plane strength of composite laminates. Compos. Sci. Technol. 71(6), 773–783 (2011)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    P.D. Shah, J.D.D. Melo, C.A. Cimini, Jr. Generating design allowables for smooth specimens, in Proceedings 17th International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM), 27–31 July, 2009, (Edinburgh, U.K., 2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    F. Darwish, G. Tashtoush, M. Gharaibeh, Stress concentration analysis for countersunk rivet holes in orthotropic plates. Eur. J. Mech. A Solids Elsevier Publication 37, 69–78 (2013)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    N. Jadvani, D.V. Singh, S. Joshi, K. Kalita, Non-dimensional stress analysis of orthotropic laminates. Mater. Focus 6(1), 63–71 (2017)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Z. Zhang, Y. Yang, H. Hamada, Notched strength prediction of glass fiber reinforced composite based on fracture toughness analysis. Stud. Sci. Technol. 3, 1 (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A Makris, D Zarouchas, C Ramault, D V Hemelrijck, E Lamkanfi, W V Paepegem, Carbon-epoxy cross-ply cruciform specimens under biaxial loading condition, Society of Plastic Engineers, Plastic Research Online,  10.1002/spepro.002586
  9. 9.
    Y. Youssef, S. Labonte, C. Roy, D. Lefebvre, An effective flat cruciform-shaped specimen for biaxial testing of cfrp laminates. Sci. Eng. Compos. Mater. 3(4), 259–268 (2012)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    E. Lamkanfia, W. Van Paepegem, J. Degrieck, C. Ramault, A. Makris, D.V. Hemelrijck, Strain distribution in cruciform specimens subjected to biaxial loading conditions. Part 1: two-dimensional versus three-dimensional finite element model. Polym. Test. 29, 7–13 (2010)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    E. Lamkanfi, W. Van Paepegem, J. Degrieck, A. Makris, C. Ramault, D. Van Hemelrijck, Geometrical influence on the strain distribution in biaxial composite specimens, in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Composite Materials, (Stockholm, Sweden) 2–5 JuneGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M.C. Serna Moreno, J.J. LópezCela, Failure envelope under biaxial tensile loading for chopped glass-reinforced polyester composites. Compos. Sci. Technol. 72(2011), 91–96 (2011)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. Ramault, A. Makris, D. Van Hemelrijck, E. Lamkanfi, W. Van Paepege, Comparison of different techniques for strain monitoring of a biaxially loaded cruciform specimen. Strain 47(Suppl. 2), 210–217 (2011)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A.S. Toress, A.K. Maji, The development of a modified bi-axial composite test specimen. J. Compos. Mater. 47(19), 2385–2398 (2012)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J.S. Welsh, J.S. Mayes, A.C. Biskner, 2-D biaxial testing and failure predictions of IM7/977-2 carbon/epoxy quasi-isotropic laminates. Compos. Struct. 75, 60–66 (2006)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Y. Huang, S.K. Ha, J. Koyanagi, J.D.D. Melo, H. Kumazawa, I. Susuki, Effects of an open hole on the biaxial strengths of composite laminates. J. Compos. Mater. 44(20), 2429–2445 (2010)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. Smits, C. Ramault, A. Makris, D. Van Hemelrijck, A. Clarke, C. Williamson, M. Gower, R. Shaw, R. Mera, E. Lamkanfi et al., A review of biaxial test methods for composites. Exper. Anal. Nano Eng. Mater. Struct. 35, 933–934 (2007)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    V.K. Kannan, V. Murali, A. Rajadurai, B. NageswaraRao, Finite element analysis and notched tensile strength evaluation of center-hole 2D carbon/carbon laminates. Adv. Compos. Mater 20(2011), 289–300 (2011). doi: 10.1163/092430410X550854 Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. Baptista, R.A. Claudio, L. Reis, I. Guelho, M. Freitas, J.F.A. Madeira, Design optimization of cruciform specimens for biaxial fatigue loading. Fratturaed Integrità Strutturale 30, 118–126 (2014)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Y. Hanabusa, H. Takizawa, T. Kuwabara, Numerical verification of a biaxial tensile test method using a cruciform specimen. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 213(6), 961–970 (2013)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. Makris, T. Vandenbergh, C. Ramault, D. Van Hemelrijck, E. Lamkanfi, W. Van Paepegem, Shape optimisation of a biaxially loaded cruciform specimen. Polym. Test. 29, 216–223 (2010)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    E. Lamkanfi, W.V. Paepegem, J. Degrieck, C. Ramault, A. Makris, D.V. Hemelrijck, Strain distribution in cruciform specimens subjected to biaxial loading conditions. Part 2: influence of geometrical discontinuities. Polym. Test. 29, 132–138 (2010)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. S. Welsh, Experimental and numerical failure predictions of biaxially-loaded unidirectional carbon composite laminates, US Air Force Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Office 3548 Aberdeen Ave SE Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    R. Sunder, B.V. Ilchenk, Fatigue crack growth under flight spectrum loading with superposed biaxial loading due to fuselage cabin pressure. Int. J. Fatigue 33, 1101–1110 (2011)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    W.J. Vankan, B.H.A.H. Tijs, G.J. de Jong, H.C. de Frel, Strength of notched and un-notched thermoplastic composite laminate in biaxial tension and compression. J. Compos. Mater. 50(25), 3477–3500 (2016)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    K. Kalita, S. Halder, Static analysis of transversely loaded isotropic and orthotropic plates with central cutout. J. Inst. Eng.Ser. C 95(4), 347–358 (2014)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    S.S. Al-Rawi, Fibers direction effect on tensile elasticity of epoxy composites using computer modelling. J. Univ. Anbar Pure Sci. 3(3), 1–7 (2009)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    B. Bakir, H. Hashem, Effect of fiber orientation for fiber glass reinforced composite material on mechanical properties. Int. J. Min. Metall. Mech. Eng. 1(5), 341–345 (2013)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J.-W. Kim, D.-G. Lee, in Tensile Strength of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Plastic by Fiber Orientation and Fiber Content Variations. 9th international conference on fracture & strength of solids, 9-13 June 2013 (Jeju, Korea, 2013)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    G.H. Ercin, P.P. Camanho, J. Xavier, G. Catalanotti, S. Mahdi, P. Lind, Size effects on the tensile and compressive failure of notched composite laminates. Compos. Struct. 96, 736–744 (2013)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Institution of Engineers (India) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringRashtreeya Vidyalaya College of EngineeringBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations